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WHAT WAS THE HOLOCAUST ?

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HOLOCAUST

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HOLOCAUST
SUMMARY

THE NAZI
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36
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
ABOUT THE HOLOCAUST

HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL DAY

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THE HOLOCAUST
DURING WW2

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FINAL SOLUTION
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MURDER
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RED CROSS HOLOCAUST INSPECTION VISIT
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"CAMP-GHETTO'

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THE

INCREDIBLE

STORY OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE


THE

INCREDIBLE

STORY OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE



GENOCIDE

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ANTI-SEMITISM, THE HATRED OF JEWISH PEOPLE, HAS BEEN HERE FOR OVER 2000 YEARS...
The Holocaust

The earliest recorded religious attack on Jewish people happened in Alexandria, Egypt in the year 38. Romans isolated Jews within the city, and eventually tortured and murdered them (The Holocaust Center).

Summer came. For the book thief, everything was going nicely. For me, the sky was the color of Jews. When their bodies had finished scouring for gaps in the door, their souls rose up. When their fingernails had scratched at the wood and in some cases were nailed into it by the sheer force of desperation, their spirits came toward me, into my arms, and we climbed out of those shower facilities, onto the roof and up, into eternity's certain breadth. They just kept feeding me. Minute after minute. Shower after shower.”   

― Markus Zusak, The Book Thief


STAGE ONE: CLASSIFICATION

The first stage is classification;
             
us vs. them.

Hitler declared the Europeans, the Aryan race (and its five subtypes races, Nordic, Mediterranean, Dinaric, Alpine, and East Baltic), as the superior race to all others, the master race. They were classified by their emotional traits and religious beliefs, and provided detailed information on their hair, eye, and skin colors, facial structure. Anyone that did not fall under the Aryan race were declared to be subhuman. Jews were distinguished from the Aryan race and identified as descendants from non-European races.

STAGE TWO: SYMBOLIZATION

Symbolization was used to identify who is who. Swastikas were on every German soldiers' uniform and symbolized the Nazi party. In concentration camps, "[c]riminals were marked with green inverted triangles, political prisoners with red, 'asocials' (including Roma, nonconformists, vagrants, and other groups) with black or—in the case of Roma in some camps—brown triangles. Homosexuals were identified with pink triangles and Jehovah's Witnesses with purple ones. Non-German prisoners were identified by the first letter of the German name for their home country, which was sewn onto their badge. The two triangles forming the Jewish star badge would both be yellow unless the Jewish prisoner was included in one of the other prisoner categories. A Jewish political prisoner, for example, would be identified with a yellow triangle beneath a red triangle. Jews were required to wear the Star of David outside of concentration camps as well" (Holocaust Memorial Museum).

STAGE THREE: DEHUMANIZATION

The sheet Nazis used to classify someone as Jewish or not.

Nazi's dehumanized the Jewish people through atrocities such as Nuremberg laws. "The laws excluded German Jews from Reich citizenship and prohibited them from marrying or having sexual relations with persons of 'German or related blood.' Ancillary ordinances to the laws disenfranchised Jews and deprived them of most political rights" (Nuremberg Laws). The Nuremberg laws also defined anyone who had three or four Jewish grandparents as Jewish, regardless of their religious beliefs. "Many Germans who had not practiced Judaism for years found themselves caught in the grip of Nazi terror. Even people with Jewish grandparents who had converted to Christianity were defined as Jews" (Holocaust Memorial Museum). Jewish shops were boycotted, and there were enforced curfews for Jews. "They were removed from schools, banned from the professions, excluded from military service, and were even forbidden to share a park bench with a non-Jew" (The History Place).

STAGE FOUR: ORGANIZATION

The Nazis organized the genocide, particularly the Schutzstaffel (SS).  

STAGE FIVE: POLARIZATION

Poster that reads, "The Jew: The inciter of war, the prolonger of war."


Propaganda was created, and went as far as to portray Jews as plague-carrying rats. "Daily anti-Semitic slurs appeared in Nazi newspapers, on posters, the movies, radio, in speeches by Hitler and top Nazis, and in the classroom" (The History Place). Anti-Semitic propaganda became the norm in Nazi Germany. Argeuably the worst thing they did in this stage was what we call The 'Night of the Broken Glass'. "In two days, over 250 synagogues were burned, over 7,000 Jewish businesses were trashed and looted, dozens of Jewish people were killed, and Jewish cemeteries, hospitals, schools, and homes were looted while police and fire brigades stood by" (Holocaust Memorial Museum). The "Night of the Broken Glass" was set off by Germans' anger over the assasination of Ernst vom Rath, the third secretary of the German embassy. A 17-year-old Jewish refugee, Herschel Grynszpan, was the one who caused Ernst's death.

STAGE SIX: PREPARATION

In this stage the victims are separated and forced to wear identifying symbols. "They [were] segregated into ghettoes, deported into concentration camps, or confined to a famine-struck region and starved" (Genocide Watch). Jews were first sent to live in Ghettos. Other groups were separated from other Germans and sent to concentration camps (Pozernick). Ghettos often were overcrowded. Plumbing didn't work. Diseases were plentiful. "People were always hungry. Germans deliberately tried to starve residents by allowing them to purchase only a small amount of bread, potatoes, and fat. Some residents had some money or valuables they could trade for food smuggled into the ghetto; others were forced to beg or steal to survive" (Holocaust Memorial Museum). In winter not enough heating was provided and people were exposed to the cold and much more prone to catching disease. "[...] tens of thousands died in the ghettos from illness, starvation, or cold. Some individuals killed themselves to escape their hopeless lives" (Holocaust Memorial Museum). Any social gathering would be considered a threat in Ghettos. Ringleaders and particapents in social gatherings, if discovered, would be incarcerated or killed. Any form of consistante schooling or education was forbade by Germans. In Warsaw, Poland there was a Ghetto uprising in the spring of 1943. To learn more, click the blue text.

The term "ghetto" originated from the name of the Jewish quarter in Venice, established in 1516, in which the Venetian authorities compelled the city's Jews to live" (Holocaust Memorial Museum).

STAGE SEVEN: EXTERMINATION

The Nazis first experimented with poison gas in 1939 in the killing of a great amount of mental patients ("euthanasia"). "A Nazi euphemism, "euthanasia" referred to the systematic killing of those Germans whom the Nazis deemed "unworthy of life" because of mental illness or physical disability" (Holocaust Memorial Museum). The use of gas chambers began after  "[...] Einsatzgruppe members complained of battle fatigue and mental anguish caused by shooting large numbers of women and children" (Holocaust Memorial Museum). Gas chambers proved to be less costly than shooting people. The SS decided in 1941 that gassing Jews would be a much more efficient way to achieve the "Final Solution".

Systematic killing in gas chambers began in 1942. Victims would be crammed into cattle cars to be transported to extermination camps, where they would be told that they need to take "showers" to be disinfected. Guards working in the camps would get as many people as possible to fit into the gas chambers. Victims would take off their clothes and leave them behind, because they could "retrieve them later". "The tighter the gas chambers were packed, the faster the victims suffocated" (Holocaust Memorial Museum).

Six million Jews were killed out of a total of eleven million people.

“Monsters exist, but they are too few in number to be truly dangerous. More dangerous are the common men, the functionaries ready to believe and to act without asking questions.”

― Primo Levi

STAGE EIGHT: DENIAL   (see  Denial of the jewish holocaust)

Although the Holocaust is one of the most well documented events in history, people still deny the Holocaust ever happened; even today. Some people say that the facts are distorted by Jews to gain sympathy; that the diary of Anne Frank is forgery; that the deaths in concentration camps were caused by starvation or disease, but not policy; etc.

The Holocaust is something we should remember, and we can't remember if we don't believe it happened. If we deny it ever happening, we may make the same mistakes, whether the mistake is killing, or letting the killing happen.


THE EIGHT STAGES OF GENOCIDE IN STEVEN SPIELBERG'S FILM SCHINDLER'S LIST
Kilbin

Schindlers List and the Eight Stages of GenocideSteven Spielbergs 1994 film Schindlers List deals with the story of Oskar Schindler, a German businessman who saved more than a thousand Jewish people during the Holocaust. The Holocaust is one of the most relevant accounts of the eight stages of genocide classification, symbolization, dehumanization, organization, polarization, identification, extermination, and denial.

This film accurately represents the eight stages of genocide and thus is an appropriate teaching tool to use in Genocide classes.To start, classification and symbolization are almost immediately shown. Classification is defined as the division of the natural and social world into categories it is shown in the film whenever the Jewish people are referred to as the Jews. They are referred to this way only because the Nazis have created an us versus them mentality, causing people to see Jewish people as somewhat alien. Symbols to name and signify classifications are also apparent. Often, genocidal governments force members of a group to wear an identifying symbol or article of clothing, and in this case it was the yellow Star of David that the Jewish people were required to wear. Genocide is always an organized process, and this is clearly shown in the movie. The Nazi camps, such as Auschwitz, are the most obvious example. The Nazis had planned out a systematic approach to the murder of the Jewish people that was involved and thorough. Identification is also shown nearer to the beginning of the film when the Jewish people are required to register themselves as Jews before the Holocaust has even begun. It is shown later in the movie when lists of Jews are created in order to keep track of who is or is not Jewish. Lastly, extermination and dehumanization in the film go hand in hand. Extermination is when all members of the targeted group are killed, including the children dehumanization is shown when the corpses are either burned or buried in mass graves because they...

LINKS

List of genocides by death toll   Wikipedia

The 10 Stages of Genocide,  Genocide Watch, by Dr. Gregory H. Stanton, President, 2016

Preventing Genocide  Genocide Watch, Dr Gregory Stanton  (Powerpoint)

8 stages of genocide (summary, examples, prevention)    Quizlet  (Flashcards)

The Genocide Education Project - Ten Stages of Genocide


GOOGLE
The deliberate killing of a large group of people,
especially those of a particular nation or ethnic group.

LEGAL DEFINITION OF GENOCIDE
Office of the UN Special Adviser on the
Prevention of Genocide (OSAPG)

Genocide is defined in Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (1948) as "any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:

killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part ; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; [and] forcibly transferring
children of the group to another group."

Elements of the framework

The Analysis Framework comprises eight categories of factors that the OSAPG uses to determine whether there may be a risk of genocide in a given situation. The eight categories of factors are not ranked, and the absence of information relating to one or more categories does not necessarily indicate the absence of a risk of genocide; what is significant is the cumulative effect of the factors. Where these factors are effectively addressed,
no longer exist or are no longer relevant, the risk of genocide is assumed to decrease
.

Framework
Click here

From PEACE PLEDGE UNION INFORMATION

GENOCIDES (20th Century)

1904 NAMIBIA    1915 ARMENIA    1932 UKRAINE

the HOLOCAUST

1975 CAMBODIA    1982 GUATEMALA     1994 RWANDA

1995 BOSNIA

The word 'genocide' was coined in 1944 to name a particularly shocking and horrific crime of violence which it was then believed could never happen again. That it has been put into practice so many times in one century is even more shocking.

(The term ‘genocide’ was first used in 1933, in a paper presented to the League of Nations by the Polish lawyer, Raphael Lemkin. He devised the concept in response to the atrocities perpetrated against the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire, between 1915 and 1918.  From The Holocaust and the Genocides)

The human race is the only species that can and does think itself into anger and violence. ('The more I thought about it, the angrier I got.') We ought to be able to think our way out of it too. ('Later I realised that violence didn't achieve anything.')

One much-practised way of thinking one's way to violence is developing beliefs to back it up; some of them may head towards the absurd. 'Violence is the only way to get respect.' 'Violence is the only language they understand.' 'I'm good, you're evil,' 'We're peaceful, they're brutal.' 'I wasn't going to let them beat me.' 'They're ALL cheats/liars/scroungers/dirty.' 'If I took it lying down, I couldn't hold my head up again.' And so on. There may have been a time in the early history of the human race (a time when the natural world was the chief threat to survival) when this kind of primitive thinking served a purpose. But it's nothing but a handicap now.

Genocide is not a wild beast or a natural disaster. It is mass murder deliberately planned and carried out by individuals, all of whom are responsible whether they made the plan, gave the order or carried out the killings. Whatever its scale, genocide is made up of individual acts, and individual choices to perform them. So human individuals need to make the commitment, as early in life as possible, that they will have no truck with it. To do that, the way genocide becomes possible has to be understood.

There follow outline histories of eight 20th century genocides. You may want to research some of them further. There are also pointers towards some of the issues they raise, particularly in respect of their causes. Prejudice, racism, grievance, intolerance, aggression, injustice, oppression - they all start small, and we need to spot and stop them in our own local orbits before they grow and get out of control. This means looking at the often long prehistory of genocide, as well as its symptoms in the present. Understanding these will help to avert future horrors.

Genocide, whether committed in time of peace or in time of war, is a crime under international law.

Genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethical, racial or religious group as such: killing members of the group, causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group, deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part, imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group, forcible transferring children of the group to another group.

The following acts shall be punishable: genocide, conspiracy to commit genocide, direct and public incitement to genocide, attempt to commit genocide, complicity in genocide.

From the United Nations Convention on Genocide, 1948

Many countries signed the Convention, some of whom have since been party to genocide. Only a few people have been charged with genocide or complicity in it.

THE PATH TO NAZI GENOCIDE
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum  2014 (28.21)

View a new Museum film providing a concise overview of the Holocaust and what made it possible. Using rare footage, the film examines the Nazis' rise and consolidation of power in Germany as well as their racist ideology, propaganda, and persecution of Jews and other innocent civilians. It also outlines the path by which the Nazis led a state to war, and with their collaborators, killed millions including systematically murdering 6 million Jewish people.
This 38-minute resource is intended to provoke reflection and discussion about the role of
ordinary people, institutions, and nations between 1918 and 1945.

GENOCIDE DOCUMENTARY: HOLOCAUST
eugen kunstmann 2016 (1.36.08)

Join us as we delve into unfalsified facts about the holocaust,
and the people behind
one of the greatest genocidal acts of modern history.