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WHAT WAS THE HOLOCAUST ?

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36
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
ABOUT THE HOLOCAUST

______

VICTIMS  OF THE
HOLOCAUST
AND
NAZI PERSECUTION

HOW HAVE CHILDREN VISUALISED, SO WE ALL REMEMBER, THE
1.5 MILLION JEWISH CHILDREN AND
4.5 MILLION JEWISH ADULTS MURDERED IN THE HOLOCAUST?


THE NAZI
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GENOCIDE -

THE HOLOCAUST -

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GENOCIDE -
HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL DAY

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RED CROSS HOLOCAUST INSPECTION VISIT

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TEREZÍN
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"CAMP-GHETTO

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TEREZIN

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DEFIANT REQUIEM

THE

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ARAB DENIAL
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THE

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INCREDIBLE


GENOCIDE

Defining
Genocide

The ADL
Pyramid of Hate


Exercise



Richard Dimbleby's 1945 news report from Belsen with photographs

When Did the Holocaust Begin?
A Genesis of Genocide

More than
89 Major
Genocides




























DEFINING GENOCIDE

Infoplease, Borgna Brunner

 Genocide: from the Greek genos, meaning race; and the Latin suffix -cidium, meaning killing

After learning the extent of Nazi atrocities against the Jews in World War II, Winston Churchill called it "a crime that has no name." Despite history's numerous precedents, the word genocide did not exist until legal scholar Raphael Lemkin originated the term in 1943. As as an internationally sanctioned, legal definition, genocide was not accepted until 1951.

NAMING THE CRIME

As a consequence of the Nuremberg trials, in which top Nazi leaders were tried for "crimes against humanity," the United Nations drew up a treaty defining and criminalizing genocide. Called The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, it was adopted by the General Assembly on December 9, 1948, and came into effect on January 12, 1951.

THE U.N. TREATY

The treaty defines genocide as the destruction of "a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group." Whereas the Nuremberg trials were conducted by an international military tribunal and specified that "crimes against humanity" related to war crimes, the 1951 U.N. Treaty encompasses war and peace:

Article I

The Contracting Parties confirm that genocide, whether committed in time of peace or in time of war, is a crime under international law which they undertake to prevent and to punish.

Article II

In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:

a.  Killing members of the group;

b.  Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;

c.  Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;

d.  Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;

e.  Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

CAMBODIA AND THE BALKANS

Although a number of countries signed the treaty "with reservation," it is ironic that two countries who have been accused of genocide—Cambodia and Yugoslavia—signed the treaty unequivocally.

Cambodia's horrific crimes, however, do not technically fit the legal definition: the mass extermination of Cambodians by the Khmer Rouge was actually the systematic massacre by a government of its own people. In the case of the ethnic cleansing of Bosnian Muslims, the distinction between genocide and other war crimes has grown less clear cut. The individuals indicted thus far for humanitarian crimes against Bosnian civilians have been accused of numerous combinations of the following:

THE FIRST CONVICTION

The first conviction by an international court for genocide occurred on September 2, 1998, in Rwanda. Jean-Paul Akayesu, Hutu mayor of the Rwandan town of Taba, was found guilty of genocide and crimes against humanity.

This precedent-setting case became the first to interpret the 1951 treaty: "There was an intention to wipe out the Tutsi group in its entirety, since even newborn babies were not spared." At the end of 1998, three individuals had been convicted of genocide, including the former prime minister of Rwanda.

The first European conviction for genocide was handed down in August 2001. Radislav Krstic, a Bosnian Serb general, was found guilty of genocide for killing up to 8,000 Bosnian Muslims in Srebenica in 1995. The summary of the verdict maintained that Bosnian Serb forces deliberately set about murdering all the men of Srebenica: "the result was inevitable—the destruction of the Bosnian Muslim people in Srebenica . . . What was ethnic cleansing became genocide."

In 2001, the trial of former Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic began (and continues today). He was originally charged with crimes against humanity in Bosnia, Croatia, and Kosovo. Later, charges of genocide were added to the indictment.

ARMENIAN GENOCIDE

Most historians concur that the greatest unacknowledged genocide in recent history was the massacre of the Armenians in 1894, 1896, and 1915—it was still "a crime that has no name."

RWANDA

But in the case of Rwanda, although the crime had a name, it remained deliberately unspoken until too late. According to the 1951 treaty, the acknowledgment of genocide comes with the responsibility "to prevent and to punish" it. Both the U.N. and the U.S. intentionally avoided the term genocide to justify their inaction until the slaughter of Tutsis had abated. (For an excellent discussion of the U.N. and U.S.'s artful dodging of the term, see Frontline's documentary on the subject.)

SUDAN

After the Sudanese government crushed a small-scale rebellion in Darfur in Feb. 2003, it permitted pro-government Arab militias called Janjaweed to carry out massacres against black villagers and rebels in the region. The UN has called it the world's worst humanitarian disaster. Widely divergent casualty statistics have been cited: as of May 2005, the death toll has been reported as ranging from 70,000 to as much as 400,000.

The United States was the first to label the killing genocide. In Sept. 2004, then-Secretary of State Colin Powell said, "This was a coordinated effort, not just random violence." As a signatory to the 1948 Genocide Convention, the United States is committed to preventing and punishing genocide, but a finding of genocide does not actually impose specific obligations on the United States. Legal scholar Hurst Hannum of Tuft University explained, "That Powell has said this is politically significant . . . It doesn't trigger any legal consequences . . . [but] there will certainly be more of a push for something to be done." A UN report in February 2005 concluded that there was no definitive evidence of genocide in Darfur, but that the Janjaweed were carrying out "no less serious and heinous" crimes.

Much of the international community has vowed never to repeat the global-scale moral failure of Rwanda. But worldwide outrage, combined with several toothless UN resolutions and the deployment of sorely inadequate African peacekeeping forces, have been the extent of the international response to Sudan's crisis.


THE ADL PYRAMID OF HATE

The Pyramid shows biased behaviors, growing in complexity from the bottom to the top. Although the behaviors at each level negatively impact individuals and groups, as one moves up the pyramid, the behaviors have more life-threatening consequences. Like a pyramid, the upper levels are supported by the lower levels. If people or institutions treat behaviors on the lower levels as being acceptable or “normal,” it results in the behaviors at the next level becoming more accepted. In response to the questions of the world community about where the hate of genocide comes from, the Pyramid of Hate demonstrates that the hate of genocide is built upon the acceptance of behaviors described in the low levels of the pyramid.
























Target Audience:   Grades 9-12               THE PYRAMID OF HATE EXERCISE

Materials for Lesson:

• Have You Ever? handout (one copy for each participant

• Genocide transparency (attached)

• USC Shoah Foundation Institute testimony video (Can be viewed or downloaded via the USC Shoah Foundation Institute’s website http://sfi.usc.edu/education/

pyramid)

• Photographs of survivors with quotes (optional, can be downloaded via the USC Shoah Foundation Institute’s website http://sfi.usc.edu/education/pyramid)

• Pyramid of Hate handout (attached)

• Pyramid of Hate activity sheet (attached)

• Chart paper, markers and push pins, or velcro

• Optional: easels

Time Requiremen 45-60 minutes

Space:  Room for students to work in small


INTRODUCTION

This classroom exercise is designed to help educators teach students ages 14-18 about the effects and consequences of bigotry and intolerance. The exercise integrates first-person video testimonies from the USC Shoah Foundation Institute’s archive with the Pyramid of Hate, a curricular tool developed by the Anti-Defamation League that provides students with an opportunity to explore the ways in which hate can escalate in society. Through this exercise, students will explore their own attitudes about, and experiences with, prejudice and bigotry; examine the individual’s roles and responsibilities regarding ethnic, racial, and religious bias; and think critically about examples of prejudiced attitudes, acts of prejudice, discrimination, violence, and genocide.

RATIONALE

History provides examples of the ways in which stereotyping, scapegoating, dehumanization, and discrimination can escalate to mass murders that have, in some instances, resulted in genocide. This activity provides participants with the opportunity to understand the pain caused by bias and the ways in which prejudice can escalate. It is designed to promote recognition of the value of interrupting that progression.

STUDENT OBJECTIVES

• Examine how discrimination based on bias can escalate into acts of violence.

• Discuss the impact of prejudice on individuals and on society.

• Recognize the role of individuals in interrupting the escalation of hate.



RICHARD DIMBLEBY'S 1945 NEWS REPORT FROM BELSEN WITH PHOTOGRAPHS
Miss Noble RMPS 2014 (13.05)


He was the BBC's war correspondent who accompanied the British 11th Armoured Division to the liberation of the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, and described the scene in a report so graphic that the BBC declined to broadcast it for four days, relenting only when he threatened to resign:

...Here over an acre of ground lay dead and dying people. You could not see which was which... The living lay with their heads against the corpses and around them moved the awful, ghostly procession of emaciated, aimless people, with nothing to do and with no hope of life, unable to move out of your way, unable to look at the terrible sights around them ... Babies had been born here, tiny wizened things that could not live ... A mother, driven mad, screamed at a British sentry to give her milk for her child, and thrust the tiny mite into his arms, then ran off, crying terribly. He opened the bundle and found the baby had been dead for days.

This day at Belsen was the most horrible of my life.   Wikipedia


WHEN DID THE HOLOCAUST BEGIN? A GENESIS OF GENOCIDE

The Holocaust was the single-most traumatic event for the
Jewish people in the 20th century, but there is some disagreement
over the exact date on which it started.

Haaretz Feb 17, 2014


When did the Holocaust actually begin? The answer is not so simple.


The term Holocaust (with a capital H) is commonly used to refer to the systematic murder by Nazi Germany of approximately six million Jews and the destruction of their communities, representing one-third of world Jewry at the time. In this use, it is analogous to the Hebrew word Shoah, also used to refer to the genocide committed against the Jews. Sometimes Holocaust is also used in a broader sense, to refer to all of the victims of
Nazi state-organized murder, including the Roma, gay people and others.


The Nazi genocide and ethnic cleansing efforts did not begin as a specific plan to gas Jews and others in concentration camps, but rather evolved over time, beginning with systematic persecution aimed in part at encouraging Jewish emigration from Germany to other countries. It grew from spontaneous murders to planned massacres of Jewish communities, to the establishment of an industrial apparatus for the
efficient, wholesale slaughter of a people.


In recognition of the evolving nature of the genocide, the date most frequently associated with the start of the Holocaust is January 30, 1933: when Adolf Hitler was appointed German chancellor, setting in motion what would become the Nazi genocide against the Jews.  (Editors Note - Other dates used are Kristalnacht (the Night of Broken Glass, 1938)  and the Wansee Conference which issued ‘the Final Solution)

The end of the Holocaust is usually thought to be May 8, 1945, or VE (Victory in Europe) Day, when the Allies formally accepted Germany’s unconditional surrender, ending World War II on the Continent, although fighting continued in the Far East.



WHEN DOES PERSECUTION BECOME GENOCIDE?


A major turning point in Nazi policy toward Jews was the coordinated attacks by the Sturmabteilung (or SA, the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party) against Jews and Jewish institutions and businesses throughout Germany and Austria on November 9-10, 1938 – an event known as Kristallnacht or the Night of the Broken Glass, due to the large amount of shattered windows at Jewish properties in its aftermath. At least 91 Jews were killed in the violence, and 30,000 were arrested and interned in concentration camps (but not extermination camps). Over 900 synagogues and 7,000 Jewish businesses were severely damaged or destroyed.


Kristallnacht marked the transition of the Nazi policy vis-a-vis Jews from social ostracism, abrogation of legal rights and economic boycotts, to organized physical violence including murder. As such, some consider the November ‘38 pogrom as marking the actual beginning of the Holocaust – the date when anti-Jewish persecution in Germany began moving toward genocide.


Mass killings of Jews became commonplace following the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941. Death squads called Einsatzgruppen, formed at the order of Reinhard Heydrich, director of the Reich Main Security Office at the time, were tasked with murdering Jewish civilians and Communist Party officials with the help of local citizens. Historians estimate that between June 1941 and May 1943, these roaming death squads killed over 1 million Jews.


Industrial-scale murder of Jews, known as the Final Solution, was approved by the senior Nazi leadership on January 20, 1942 at the Wannsee Conference, held just outside Berlin. At the meeting, called by Heydrich, he presented the plan to transport Jews from Eastern and Western Europe to extermination camps located in Poland.


While the fall of the Nazi regime and its surrender on May 8, 1945 is usually the date given as the end of the Holocaust – it did not mark the end of organized killings of Jews in Europe. Hundreds of Jews were killed across Poland by Polish locals after the war had ended. In the most of infamous of these events, on July 4, 1946, over 40 Jews were killed in the Polish city of Kielce, in a massacre incited by Polish communist authorities
with elements among the local population participating.


Since the end of the Holocaust in 1945

55 million civilians have perished

in more than 89 major genocides

around the world
click here to see ALL the list



























LINKS


ICD Program for Human Rights and Global Peace   Acts of Genocide Committed Since the Adoption of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide in 1951
Inter-Parliamentary Alliance for Human Rights and Global Peace

Bosnian genocide  UCU download commemorates the 20th anniversary of the Bosnian genocide [2Mb]

To commemorate the 20th Anniversary of the Bosnian genocide (1995-2015), we produced a short publication outlining the events that led to the murder of around 8,000 men and boys. The single largest mass murder in Europe since 1945:   Keep the memory alive:

Remembering Rwanda    UCU download Holocaust Memorial Day 2014 [187kb]

To commemorate the 20th Anniversary of the Rwandan genocide (1994-2014), we produced a short publication outlining the events that led to the slaughter of an estimated 1 million Tutsis and moderate Hutus over a period of 100 days from 7 April to 16 July 1994. The testimonial of Jean Bosco Ngabonzima delivered to UCU members in 2011 has also been reproduced.

THE PATH TO NAZI GENOCIDE,
CHAPTER 1/4:
AFTERMATH OF WORLD WAR I
AND THE RISE OF NAZISM, 1918–1933
United States
Holocaust Memorial Museum 2016 (13.18)

THE PATH TO NAZI GENOCIDE,
CHAPTER 2/4:
BUILDING A NATIONAL COMMUNITY,
1933–1936
United States
Holocaust Memorial Museum 2016 (6.56)


THE PATH TO NAZI GENOCIDE,
CHAPTER 3/4:
FROM CITIZENS TO OUTCASTS, 1933–1938
United States
Holocaust Memorial Museum 2016 (7.28)

THE PATH TO NAZI GENOCIDE,
CHAPTER 4/4:
WORLD WAR II AND THE HOLOCAUST, 1939–1945
United States
Holocaust Memorial Museum 2016 (13.54)