VIDEOS


CLICK BUTTON TO GO TO
PART

What Was
the
Holocaust?

Holocaust
Timeline

Holocaust
Glossary

Why Teach the Holocaust which Happened 80
Years Ago?


36 Q and A
Victims
Nazi Persecution


Jews in
Prewar Germany

How Big
is
Six Million?


Overview
Nazi Economy
1933-39

The Nazi
Racist State

The Path to
Nazi and World
Genocide

Murder
on an
Industrial Scale

Holocaust
Memorial Day

Video
Organisation

Charts
Nazi Party


Holocaust Reparations
Chronology

Summary

Nazi Plunder

Videos - Nazi Plunder

Nazi Plunder - Effects

Nazi Plunder - Recovery

Nazi Plunder -
Help and Restitution

Reparations - FAQ

Reparations -
the Future

Reparations -
Contacts and Links


SS and Gestapo

Nuremberg Laws

Kristallnacht

Kindertransport

Kindertransport -
Stories

Holocaust
Museums and Memorials

Nazis
and Unemployment

Holocaust
Maps
and Geography

Wansee
Conference

Einsatzgruppen
SS Paramilitary
Death Squads

Nazi
Camps

Videos
Nazi Camps

Death Transport
to
Holocaust Camps

The Judenrite

Judenrite Stories

Ghetto (Jewish) Police

Red Cross
Holocaust Inspection Tour to Terezin

Videos
Terezin
(Theresenstadt)

Deffiant Requiem
- The Documentary

Jewish Resistance
During
the Holocaust

Rescuers Who
Defied the Nazis

Bombing
Auschwitz

World Attention
to
Concentration Camps During WW2


Nazis and Medicine


Videos
Nazis and Medicine


Responsibility
for the
Holocaust



Holocaust
Research Project


Denial
of the
Jewish Holocaust

Why do the Arabs Deny
the Holocaust?


Videos
Holocaust Survivors

Surviving Survival

Voices of the Holocaust
and the
Yad Vashem
Video Toolbox


Nuremberg
Trials

Subsequent
Nuremberg
Trials

Videos
Nuremberg
Trials


Holocaust Links

CLICK HERE  TO ACCESS  COUNTRIES

T O P I C

I  S  R  A  E  L

Videos -

Maps -

Mogan David
(Flag of Israel)

Statistics  and Information


4,000 YEARS OF
JEWISH HISTORY
Videos


Expulsion
of the Jews  
from
Arab Countries,
1948-2012

Palestinians

Christians
Leaving the
Middle East


4000 YEARS OF
JEWISH HISTORY

Jewish
Timelines
and Story

Why do People
Hate the Jews


WHAT WAS THE HOLOCAUST ?

ANTISEMITISM


Who is a Jew?

The Jewish Law

Talmud

Shulchan Aruch

Daf Yomi

The Hebrew Bible

Interpretation

The Temples

The Synagogues

Jewish Messiah
Ciaimants

Jewish Conversion

Jewish Women
in Judaism

Jewish
Education

Rabbi's
and
Jewish Culture  

Kabbalah


Jewish Diaspora

Jewish Festivals

Survival of Hebrew

Jewish Calendar


Lost Tribes

Jewish-Roman  Wars

Understanding the
Middle Ages

The
Spanish
 Inquisition

Jewish Pirates


Why has Christendom
Attacked the Jews?

Islam

Your Feedback Please to the

jewishwikipedia.info Guestbook

Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share via e-mail Print

THE

INCREDIBLE

STORY OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE



NAZIS AND UNEMPLOYMENT












































Did the Geman People Benefitt From Hitler’s Rule?


When this many people are jobless, the economic story quickly becomes a sociology story. People with no jobs have lots of time and little to lose.

High unemployment means an escalation in civil unrest.

Back in 2011, then Societe Generale strategist Dylan Grice circulated a controversial chart linking Weimar-era unemployment in Germany to the rise of the Nazi party. From Grice:

"The depression broke something in the German people. Even after the horrors of hyperinflation, which peaked in 1923, and the subsequent currency stabilisation of 1924, which caused a deep depression in 1925, the Nazis were barely on the electoral radar. But, by the time Germany's late 1920s depression was in full swing, the situation had changed. (As the chart shows, the depression began sooner in Germany than in America. This was because the US, as Germany's main creditor and most important financier of its reconstruction, began to repatriate funds back to the US in the late 1920s, first to earn better returns in the then booming US economy, then to cover the losses caused when the boom turned to bust).

Economic depression and crushing debt characterizes Greece today.

And just a month ago, Greece's Neo-Nazi Golden Dawn party took third place during the election.

"When I go home today, I will go home to a country where the third-biggest party is not a neo-Nazi but a Nazi party," Greek finance minister Yanis Varoufakis said during a press conference with German finance minster Wolfgang Schauble. "Germany can be proud of our fight against Nazis. We now need the German help."

It sounds a bit extreme. But Varoufakis isn't kidding.


Unemployment in Nazi Germany

After the First World War Germany suffered from inflation. In January, 1921, there were 64 marks to the dollar. By November, 1923 this had changed to 4,200,000,000,000 marks to the dollar.

Some politicians in the United States and Britain began to realize that the terms of the Versailles Treaty had been too harsh and in April 1924 Charles Dawes presented a report on German economic problems to the Allied Reparations Committee. The report proposed a plan for regulating annual payments of reparations and the reorganizing the German State Bank so as to stabilize the currency. Promises were also made to provide Germany with foreign loans.

These policies were successful and by the end of 1924 inflation had been brought under control and the economy began to improve. By 1928 unemployment had fallen to 8.4 per cent of the workforce. The German people gradually gained a new faith in their democratic system and began to find the extremist solutions proposed by people such as Adolf Hitler unattractive.

The fortunes of the National Socialist German Workers Party changed with the Wall Street Crash in October 1929. Desperate for capital, the United States began to recall loans from Europe. One of the consequences of this was a rapid increase in unemployment. Germany, whose economy relied heavily on investment from the United States, suffered more than any other country in Europe.


UNEMPLOYMENT IN NAZI GERMANY
Spartacus Educational

Before the crash, 1.25 million people were unemployed in Germany. By the end of 1930 the figure had reached nearly 4 million, 15.3 per cent of the population. Even those in work suffered as many were only working part-time. With the drop in demand for labour, wages also fell and those with full-time work had to survive on lower incomes. Hitler, who was considered a fool in 1928 when he predicted economic disaster, was now seen in a different light. People began to say that if he was clever enough to predict the depression maybe he also knew how to solve it.

By 1932 over 30 per cent of the German workforce was unemployed. In the 1933 Election campaign, Adolf Hitler promised that if he gained power he would abolish unemployment. He was lucky in that the German economy was just beginning to recover when he came into office. However, the policies that Hitler introduced did help to reduce the number of people unemployed in Germany.

These policies often involved taking away certain freedoms from employers. The government banned the introduction of some labour-saving machinery. Employers also had to get government permission before reducing their labour force. The government also tended to give work contracts to those companies that relied on manual labour rather than machines. This was especially true of the government's massive motorway programme. As a result of this scheme Germany developed the most efficient road system in Europe.

Adolf Hitler also abolished taxation on new cars. A great lover of cars himself, and influenced by the ideas of Henry Ford, Hitler wanted every family in Germany to own a car. He even became involved in designing the Volkswagen (The People's Car).

Hitler also encouraged the mass production of radios. In this case he was not only concerned with reducing unemployment but saw them as a means of supplying a steady stream of Nazi propaganda to the German people.

Youth unemployment was dealt with by the forming of the Voluntary Labour Service (VLS) and the Voluntary Youth Service (VYS), a scheme similar to the Civilian Conservation Corps introduced by Franklin D. Roosevelt in the United States. The VYS planted forests, repaired river banks and helped reclaim wasteland.

Adolf Hitler also reduced unemployment by introducing measures that would encourage women to leave the labour market. Women in certain professions such as doctors and civil servants were dismissed, while other married women were paid a lump sum of 1000 marks to stay at home.

By 1937 German unemployment had fallen from six million to one million. However, the standard of living for those in employment did not improve in the same way that it had done during the 1920s. With the Nazis controlling the trade unions, wage-rates did not increase with productivity, and after a few years of Hitler's rule workers began to privately question his economic policies.


THE NAZIS AND THE GERMAN ECONOMY
historylearningsite.co.uk. The History Learning Site, C N Trueman, 9 Mar 2015. 20 Jul 2019.

Germany’s economy was in a mess when Hitler was elected Chancellor in January 1933. Hitler and Nazipropaganda had played on the population’s fear of no hope. Unemployment peaked at 6 million during the final days of the Weimar Republic – near enough 33% of the nation’s working population. Now Hitler decreed that all should work in Nazi Germany and he constantly played on the economic miracle Nazi Germanyachieved.

This “economic miracle” was based on unemployment all but disappearing by 1939.

Unemployment in Germany

January 1933 6 million

January 1934 3.3 million

January 1935 2.9 million

January 1936 2.5 million

January 1937 1.8 million

January 1938 1.0 million

January 1939 302,000

But was this true or did the Nazi propaganda machine move into overdrive to persuade the nation and Europe that she had achieved something that other European nations had not during the time of economic depression?

A number of policies were introduced which caused the unemployment figures to drop.

With these measures in place the unemployment figure had to fall drastically and many saw the Nazi figures as nothing more than a book-keeping trick. However, many would have been too scared to speak out against the Nazis or pass negative comments on the published figures – such was the fear of the Gestapo.

However, there is no doubt that work was created. The Nazis introduced public work schemes for men who worked in the National Labour Service (Reichsarbeitsdienst or RAD). Their work would have included digging ditches on farms to assist irrigation, building the new autobahns, planting new forests etc. The men of the RAD wore a military style uniform, lived in camps near to where they were working and received only what we would term pocket money. However, compared to the lack of success of the Weimar governmentand the chronic misery of 1931 to 1932, these men felt that at least the Nazi government was making the effort to improve their lot.

To ‘protect’ those in work, the German Labour Front was set up. This was lead by Robert Ley. The GLF took the role of trade unions which had been banned. To an extent, the GLF did this. Ley ordered that workers could not be sacked on the spot but he also ordered that a worker could not leave his job without the government’s permission. Only government labour exchanges could arrange for a new job if someone did leave his employment.

However, the GLF increased the number of hours worked from 60 to 72 per week (including overtime) by 1939. Strikes were outlawed. The average factory worker was earning 10 times more than those on dole money and few complained – though to do so was fraught with potential difficulties.

The leisure time of the workers was also taken care of. An organisation called “Kraft durch Freude” (KdF) took care of this. Ley and the KdF worked out that each worker had 3,740 hours per year free for pursuing leisure activities – which the state would provide. The activities provided by the state were carefully and systematically recorded.

For the Berlin area (1933-38) : Type of Event Number of events Number of people involved

Cheap holidays and the offer of them was a good way to win the support of the average person in the street. A cruise to the Canary Islands cost 62 marks – easily affordable to many though most cruises were taken up by Nazi Party officials. Walking and skiing holidays in the Bavarian Alps cost 28 marks. A two-week tour of Italy cost 155 marks.

The KdF also involved itself in introducing a scheme whereby the workers could get a car. The Volkswagen – People’s Car – was designed so that most could afford it. The Beetle, designed by Ferdinand Porsche, cost 990 marks. This was about 35 weeks wages for the average worker. To pay for one, workers went on a hire purchase scheme. They paid 5 marks a week into an account.

Theoretically, when the account had reached 750 marks the worker would be given an order number which would lead to them receiving a car. In fact, no-one received a car. The millions of marks invested into the scheme were re-directed into the rapidly expanding weapons factories. This accelerated as World War Two approached. No-one complained as to do so could lead to serious trouble with the secret police.


DID THE NAZIS PRODUCE AN ECONOMIC MIRACLE FOR GERMANY?

The Minister of the Economy was Hjalmar Schacht. He introduced his “New Plan”. This plan intended to reduce imports, reduce unemployment, channel government spending into a wide range of industries and make trade agreements with other nations. Hermann Goering also wanted Germany to become self-sufficient in all industries so that as a nation she could survive a war. Were these plans successful?


WHAT IMPACT DID THE NAZI PARTY HAVE ON GERMANY’S ECONOMY?   WHO BENEFITED FROM THE NAZIS?
Toot Hill School


People will vote for or join a political party that they believe will increase their wealth, power, and prestige. One of the most important reasons why the Nazi Party gained in popularity in the late 1920s was because of the economic chaos in Germany after the Wall St Crash of 1929. The Nazis realised that if they were to gain and keep mass support from the German people, they would have to tackle these serious issues:

The Nazis had been relatively unpopular between 1923-1928, but their fortunes changed with the Wall Street Crash in October 1929. Desperate for capital, the United States began to recall loans from Europe. One of the consequences of this was a rapid increase in unemployment. Germany, whose economy relied heavily on investment from the United States, suffered more than any other country in Europe.

Before the crash, 1.25 million people were unemployed in Germany. By the end of 1930 the figure had reached nearly 4 million, 15.3 per cent of the population. Hitler, who was considered a fool in 1928 when he predicted economic disaster, was now seen in a different light. People began to say that if he was clever enough to predict the depression maybe he also knew how to solve it.

SUMMARY: Time to Learn!!

1. By 1932 over 30 per cent of the German workforce was unemployed.

2. In the 1933 Election campaign, Adolf Hitler promised that if he gained power he would abolish unemployment.

3. He was lucky in that the German economy was just beginning to recover when he came into office.

4. However, the policies that Hitler introduced did help to reduce the number of people unemployed in Germany.

Nazi economic policies:

• On 2nd May, 1933, Adolf Hitler ordered the Sturm Abteilung (SA) to arrest Germany's trade union leaders. Robert Ley formed the Labour Front (DAF), the only union organization allowed in the Third Reich.

• A pay freeze was introduced in 1933 and this was enforced by the Labour Front. Wages were now decided by the Labour Front and compulsory deductions made for income tax, and for its Strength through Joy programme. The Labour Front issued work-books that recorded the worker's employment record and no one could be employed without one.

Nazi economic policies:

• The government banned the introduction of some labour-saving machinery.

• Employers had to get government permission before reducing their labour force.

• The Nazi government gave work contracts to those companies that relied on manual labour rather than machines. This was especially true of the government's massive autobahn (motorway) programme.

• The Nazis concentrated on rearming. Thousands of Germans worked in factories producing weapons.

• Conscription into the German armed forces helped to reduce the numbers of unemployed.

NAZI ECONOMIC POLICIES:

• Hitler also encouraged the mass production of radios. In this case he was not only concerned with reducing unemployment, but saw them as a means of supplying a steady stream of Nazi propaganda to the German people.

• Youth unemployment was dealt with by the forming of the Voluntary Labour Service (VLS) and the Voluntary Youth Service (VYS), these planted forests, repaired river banks and helped reclaim wasteland.

• Women in certain professions such as doctors and civil servants were dismissed, while other married women were paid a lump sum of 1000 marks to stay at home.

• In the summer of 1935 Adolf Hitler announced the introduction of Labour Service (RAD). Under this measure all men aged between the ages of nineteen and twentyfive had work for the government for six months. Later women were also included in the scheme and they did work such as teaching and domestic service.


NAZI ECONOMIC POLICY: STRENGTH THROUGH JOY (KRAFT DURCH FREUDE OR KDF.)

The Strength through Joy organisation was set up to encourage workers to work as hard as they could for Germany and the Nazis. The offer of cheap holidays and a car were good ways to win the support of the average person in the street. A cruise to the Canary Islands cost 62 marks - easily affordable to many, though most cruises were taken up by Nazi Party officials. Walking and skiing holidays in the Bavarian Alps cost 28 marks. A two-week tour of Italy cost 155 marks. Ley ordered the building of two new cruise-liners that were used to take German workers on foreign holidays. In 1938 an estimated 180,000 people went on cruises to places such as Maderia and the Norweigian fjords. Others were given free holidays in Germany. The Strength through Joy programme also built sports facilities, paid for theatre visits and financially supported travelling cabaret groups. Although the German worker paid for these benefits through compulsory deductions, the image of people being given holidays and subsidized entertainment was of great propaganda value to the Nazi government.

Although he couldn’t drive, Hitler loved cars and wanted every family in Germany to own a car. He even became involved in designing the affordable Volkswagen (The People's Car). The Nazis created a scheme whereby the workers could get a car. The Beetle, designed by Ferdinand Porsche, cost 990 marks. This was about 35 weeks wages for the average worker. To pay for one, workers went on a hire purchase scheme. They paid 5 marks a week into an account. Theoretically, when the account had reached 750 marks the worker would be given an order number which would lead to them receiving a car. In fact, no-one received a car. The millions of marks invested into the scheme were re-directed into the rapidly expanding weapons factories. This accelerated as World War Two approached. No-one complained as to do so could lead to serious trouble with the secret police.

DID THE NAZIS PRODUCE AN ECONOMIC MIRACLE FOR GERMANY?  HOW SUCCESSFUL WERE THE NAZIS IN TACKLING UNEMPLOYMENT, INFLATION AND CREATING SELF-SUFFICIENCY?

• Unemployment had fallen from 6 million in 1933 to 300,000 by 1939

• Industrial production in 1939 was above the figure for Weimar Germany before the 1929 Wall Street Crash.

BUT on the other hand…

• By 1939, Germany still imported 33% of its required raw materials

• Government income had been 10 billion Reichsmarks in 1928. In 1939, it was 15 billion. However, government spending had increased from 12 billion Reichsmarks in 1928 to over 30 billion in 1939.

• From 1933 to 1939, the Nazi government always spent more than it earned so that by 1939, government debt stood at over 40 billion Resichsmarks.

• Annual food consumption in 1937 had fallen for wheat bread, meat, bacon, milk, eggs fish vegetables, sugar, tropical fruit and beer compared to the 1927 figures. The only increase was in rye bread, cheese and potatoes.

• Real earnings in 1938 were all but the same as the 1928 figure. (Real earnings are wages adjusted to allow for inflation).

LINKS

Economy of Nazi Germany     Wikipedia

The Nazi Economy (1933 – 1939): Unemployment, Autarky and the Working-Class
RE Mollema - ‎2017   journals

Unemployment in
Nazi Germany

The Nazis and the
German Economy

What impact
did the Nazi party have
on Germany’s Economy?   Who benefited
from the Nazis?

Links