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721 BCE   The Exile of Samaria. Ten northern tribes of Israel are exiled by the Assyrians.

597 BCE   The Exile of Jehoiachin. Ten thousand inhabitants of Jerusalem are brought to Babylonia by Nebuchadnezzar.

586 BCE   The Exile of Zidqiah. Forty thousand Jews are exiled to Babylonia following the destruction of King Solomon’s temple.

“By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat and wept, as we remembered Zion.”

331 BCE   Babylonia conquers by the Greeks under Alexander the Great.

220   Iraq becomes the center of Jewish scholarship and development for the next 500 years. Babylonian Talmud is created in leading Jewish academies of Nehardea, Pumbeditha, and Sura.

638   Arab Conquest, Islam is proclaimed the official religion of the newly named country, Iraq. Jews adopt Arabic.

720   Period of Jewish persecution, where no new synagogues are allowed to be erected. Rabbi’s flee Sura, an Iraqi Jewish center of learning.

945   Baghdad is conquered by Shiite Moslems

1058 – 1900   Succession of conquest’s in Iraq include: Turkish, Mongol, Turkish, and Persian. Jewish population ranges from 40,000-80,000.

1918   British Mandate of Iraq begins. Jews play a central role.

1932   Iraq gains independence from British. Prime Minister, Rasheed Ali welcomes Nazi propagandists’ and extremists into Iraq. Germans begin inciting hatred against Iraqi Jews.

1941   June 1st -2nd. Mufti-inspired, pro-Nazi coup leads to the Farhood. Violent riots and a pogrom in Baghdad, during the Jewish holiday of Shavuot, leaving nearly 300 Jews killed and over 2,000 wounded.

1941- 1951   More than 15,000 Jews flee Iraq through Iran. Outbreaks of anti-Jewish rioting.

1948   Iraqi Army participates in war against Israel. Headlines in Iraq read that “The fate of the Jews will be either the grave or the sea.” Jewish community of Iraq is composed of about 130,000 individuals.

1948   Zionism is added to article 51 of the Criminal Code in Iraq with death as the punishment. 1,500 Jews are imprisoned, some of whom are tortured and killed. Homes are confiscated, Jews are forbidden to engage in foreign trade, and businesses are boycotted.

1949-1951   Jewish citizens are allowed to leave Iraq on the condition that they renounce their citizenship. The Jewish agency evacuates 104,000 Jews in Operation’s Ezra and Nechemia. Separately, some 20,000 Jews are smuggled out through Iran.

1952   6,000 Jews remain in Iraq and the government once again bans Jews from emigrating.

1969   3,000 remaining Jews are severely persecuted with arbitrary arrests and economic isolation. Saddam Hussean orders 9 Jewish men publicly hanged in Baghdad and Basra upon the discovery of an alleged local “spy ring,” others died of torture.

1970’s   Remaining Jews are quietly allowed to leave.

2010     Less than 10 Jews remain.

from Projet Aladin - a Hstory of the Jews in Iraq

The modern state of Iraq, which was born in the twentieth century, roughly corresponds to the Mesopotamia region of western Asia between the Tigris and the Euphrates. The history of the Jews in Iraq is documented from the time of the Babylonian captivity circa 800 BC. Iraqi Jews constitute one of the world's oldest and most historically significant Jewish communities.

The Jewish presence on this territory dates back to Abraham. The Bible says that he left Ur for Canaan, around 1800 BC. The influx of Jews into the territory of Iraq was not the result of a decision, but of two disasters.

The first contingent arrived in the region after 722 BC, following the defeat of the Kingdom of Israel (North) by the Assyrians. In 597 BC, King Nebuchadnezzar, who had conquered the Kingdom of Judah (South), laid siege to Jerusalem in response to the revolt by the Jewish king Jehoiachin. He partially despoiled the Temple and deported to Babylon the king, his court, as well as thousands of men.

Eleven years later, during the reign of Zedekiah, who had been enthroned by Nebuchadnezzar, Judaeans revolted again. A second siege of Jerusalem began, and lasted eighteen months. The city was razed to the ground, and a further deportation ensued. Finally, five years later, Jeremiah records a third captivity.

After the overthrow of Babylonia by the Persians, Cyrus gave the Jews permission to return to their native land (537 BCE) and rebuild the Temple. Only 40,000 of them left Babylon, while 80,000 decided to continue to live there.

Fairly soon after the Persian conquest, Jewish life flourished. It was in Babylonia that Ezra "the scribe" laid the foundations for what became the Pharisaic movement, and later rabbinic Judaism. This is where the sage Hillel first established the authority of the Michna (Mishna), the oral law and here were born the famous academies of Nehardea, Sura and Pumbedita. The key work of these academies was the compilation of the Babylonian Talmud.

During this period, the Jewish community in Babylon was led by an exilarch, whose title was hereditary. He collected his own taxes, half of which belonged to the empire. The Babylonian diaspora retained and developed its community structure and its relative independence until the thirteenth century.

The end of the Persian Empire threatened the situation. To counter the Mazdakites who put their religious freedom at risk, the Jews supported the conquest of Iraq by Muslims. Under the caliphs of Baghdad, they paid a poll-tax (jizyah), which ensured freedom of religion and community.

 Iraq, which had fallen under the domination of the Ottoman Empire in 1517, had to wait until the reforms, the Tanzimat, to have a centralized administration. The reform movement had a strong influence on the Jewish community: it introduced it to the modern world. In addition to the adoption of Western clothing, Jews gained access to education including foreign language learning and acquisition of skills in the business world.

Under the Ottoman rule, Jews were legal advisers and councillors to governors and served in the Ottoman parliament.

Over time, the Turkish rule deteriorated and the situation of the Jews worsened, but the population continued to grow. In 1884 there were 30,000 Jews in Baghdad and by 1900, 50,000. The community also produced great rabbis, such as Joseph Hayyim ben Eliahu Mazal-Tov (1834 - 1909).

Under the government of Young Turks (1908), who led a policy of unification, Jews served in the army and fought in Turkish units during the First World War or were doctors or translators.

For many, however, this conflict had disastrous consequences. Soon after their defeat, the Ottomans threw the blame on the Jews and accused them of shirking from their duty in the war effort. Some were executed; many others saw their property confiscated.

IRAQ AFTER 1920    

Iraq was the creation of the League of Nations, which marked the end of the First World War and the defeat and dismantling of the Ottoman Empire. After twelve years under British mandate (1920 - 1932), Iraq became an independent state in 1932.

Its population consisted of a majority Shiite Muslim south and a Sunni Muslim minority in Baghdad, which until recently dominated political life in Iraq in modern times. Other small ethnic and religious groups, including Kurds, Yazidis, Christians and Jews, lived in the country.

Under the regime of King Faisal 1, a benevolent monarch supported by the British, Jews, like all other minorities, were invited to participate as citizens in the new Iraq. In this climate, Jews enjoyed a period of splendour. Iraq's first minister of finance, Sir Sassoon Eskell, was a Jew, and Jews were important in developing the judicial and postal systems. Records from the Baghdad Chamber of Commerce show that 10 out of its 19 members in 1947 were Jews and the first musical band formed for Baghdad's nascent radio in the 1930s consisted mainly of Jews. Jews were represented in the Iraqi parliament, and many Jews held significant positions in the bureaucracy which in many cases led to resentment by the Iraqi population.

Sociologist Philip Mendes asserts that before the anti-Jewish actions of the 1930s and 1940s, overall Iraqi Jews "viewed themselves as Arabs of the Jewish faith, rather than as a separate race or nationality".

In the 1930s, the situation of the Jews in Iraq deteriorated. Previously, the growing Iraqi Arab nationalist sentiment included Iraqi Jews as fellow Arabs, but these views changed with the introduction of Nazi propaganda and the ongoing conflict in the Palestinian Mandate. Despite protestations of their loyalty to Iraq, Iraqi Jews were increasingly subject to discrimination and harsh laws. On August 27, 1934 many Jews were dismissed from public service, and quotas were set up in colleges and universities. The teaching of Jewish history and Hebrew in Jewish schools was banned. Following Rashid Ali's pro-Axis coup, the Farhud ("violent dispossession") pogrom of June 1 and 2, 1941, broke out in Baghdad in which approximately 180 Jews were murdered, and up to 1,000 injured -- damages to property were estimated at $3 million. There was also looting in many other cities at around the same time.

At the creation of Israel in 1948, Zionism became a capital crime to Iraqi law. The worsening climate intensified. In 1950, Iraqi Jews were permitted to emigrate, if they renounced their citizenship. New economic restrictions were imposed on those who remained in the country. In 1952, the tone changed: emigration was forbidden. Two members of the Jewish community, accused of masterminding an attack against a U.S. institution, were hanged in public.

During the 1960s, the authorities led a policy of systematic discrimination. Property sales were banned, Jews had to have a distinctive yellow identity card. After the Six-Day war, Jews lost the right to property, their bank accounts were frozen, they were forced to close their shops and were excluded from all public functions.

When Saddam Hussein came to power in 1979, there were fewer than 400 Jews in Iraq. The Jewish community still lived under constant surveillance. Ironically, it seems that the attitude of Saddam Hussein to the Iraqi Jews was less excessive than that of his predecessors. According to testimony gathered by journalist Philippe Broussard for the newspaper Le Monde (8 May 2003), his regime removed most of the discriminatory anti-Jewish laws.

It is believed that no more than seven or eight Iraqi Jews still live in Baghdad, all that is left of the community.

Today, only the memory and history of the Jewish diaspora in the land of Iraq remain. Iraqi Jews, now citizens of other countries, have established institutes for historical research and preservation of their culture. Their actions reflect the richness of Jewish history in this land and also their nostalgia.


Iraqi Experience    mena Iraqi Experience

The US Archivist who Saved the History of Iraq's Jews, By Jane O'Brien, BBC News, Washington, 9 November 2013

Iraq, Babylon, and Baghdad in Jewish History and Thought,  Steven Bayme, National Director, Contemporary Jewish Life Department - AJC Global Jewish Advocacy

History of the Jews in Iraq  Wikipedia

Iraq Virtual Jewish History Tour | Jewish Virtual Library



Modern Iraq, was born in the twentieth century, roughly corresponding to the Mesopotamia region of western Asia between the Tigris and the Euphrates. Jewish history is documented from the Babylonian captivity.  Iraqi Jews constitute one of the world's oldest and historically most significant Jewish communities.

Immigration occurred after 722 BCE, with the defeat of the Northern Kingdom of Israel by the Assyrians.  After the overthrow of Babylonia by the Persians, Cyrus gave the Jews permission to return in 537 BCE and rebuild the Temple. 40,000 left Babylon, while 80,000 remained.  Ezra "the scribe" laid the foundations of the Pharisaic movement and rabbinic Judaism. Hillel established the authority of the Michna (Mishna), the oral law. Famous academies were established who compiled the Babylonian Talmud.

Iraq became part of the Ottoman Empire in 1517.  Reforms, the Tanzimat, led to a centralized administration which introduced Jews to the modern world including the adoption of Western clothing and provided access to wider education.

As Turkish rule deteriorated so the Jewish situation worsened.  In 1900 there were 50,000 Jews in the Baghdad many of whom later served in the World War 1.  After the war they were accused of shirking their duty in the war effort and blamed for the Turkish defeat. Some were executed, some had their property confiscated.

Many Jews were dismissed from public service, and quotas were set up in colleges and universities. Teaching Jewish history and Hebrew in Jewish schools was forbidden.  The 1941 pogrom in Baghdad saw approximately 180 Jews murdered, and up to 1,000 injured  with property damage of $3 million. Looting occurred in many cities.

In 1948 Zionism became a capital crime when Israel was created. In 1950, Jews were allowed to emigrate by renouncing their citizenship. New economic restrictions were imposed on those remaining. In 1952, emigration was forbidden

The 1960’s saw property sales banned and Jews given a distinctive yellow identity card. After the Six-Day war, Jews lost the right to property, their bank accounts were frozen, forced to close their shops and excluded from public functions.

When Saddam Hussein came to power in 1979, there were fewer than 400 Jews in Iraq. The Jewish community still lived under constant surveillance though most anti-Jewish laws were removed.

It is believed that only seven or eight Iraqi Jews still live in Baghdad, all that is left of the community. Now only their memory and history remain.

In May 2003 2,700 Jewish books and 10,000 documents were discovered in Iraq were  The US National Archives is preserving these books and documents and making them accessible worldwide.


To 1920

After 1920


Turki al-Dakhil with Rashid Al-Khayoun on the Jews of Iraq

The Last Jews of Baghdad - NewsNight with Aaron Brown CNN

Jews have lived in Iraq for thousands of years, but when coalition forces entered Baghdad in May 2003 only very few remained. A U.S. Army team searching for weapons of mass destruction in the flooded basement of the Mukhabarat, the headquarters of Saddam Hussein’s intelligence services, discovered over 2,700 Jewish books and tens of thousands of documents. The remarkable survival of this written record of Iraqi Jewish life provides an unexpected opportunity to better understand
this community.
The National Archives is preserving these books and documents and making them accessible worldwide. -

See more      jimena




Click here to see a map and details of population change between
1948 and 2012

Jordan Salama 2015 (29.25)

TONY ROCCA   2012 (9.54)

Imagine a world with no running water or electricity, scorching heat and the constant fear of cholera.Imagine a warren of alleys no wider than a cart. Cows are being milked on doorsteps, street barbers are giving shaves, pulling teeth and lancing boils. Barefoot water-sellers are bent double under their heavy goatskins.It is 1912 and we are in old Baghdad. To us it sounds like hell. Yet Violette Shamash, born into an affluent family, adored its positive side: sleeping under the stars, hearing the call of the nightingale, smelling scents of gardenias and spices, riding to school on donkey-back.For her it was a kind of Eden.Violette was a privileged witness to a time when nearly 40% of Baghdad was Jewish and Jews, Moslems and Christians embraced each other's differences. Her insights into domestic life, and a society coming to terms with the 20th century, are candid, entertaining, and often very amusing. However, in 1941, disaster struck the oldest community in the Diaspora. A brutal massacre took place over two days of rioting and sounded the death-knell for the Jews of Babylon.This slideshow contains images from Violette's book, MEMORIES OF EDEN, which not only provides a unique insight into the culture and customs of the Jews of Iraq but also shows everyday life as experienced by everyone at a time when Baghdadis lived together side by side, in mutual respect, irrespective of religion. William Shawcross has called it "an astonishing record, telling the story of a cultivated and well integrated Jewish community in the heart of Muslim Arabia during the end of the Ottoman Empire and the British Mandate. A superb account of a long forgotten time which is barely imaginable now." Further reviews and comments from academics and literary critics can be seen on our website. We would very much welcome your views and opinions via our blog:
The book is available from Amazon:

IraqiJews 2012 (34.46)