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MODERN
HISTORY

OF
ISRAEL


SUMMARY

Jewish Exiles
from
Arab
Countries
________

Palestinian\
Refugees

Palestinians
Timeline


Together

Our Future With
Our Neighbours
(President
Rivlin)


What is Meant
by a
‘Palestinian Refugee’?

How Many Palestinians Refugees
are There?

Palestine
Name

Palestinian
Human
Rights


VIDEOS
Jews Who Fled from Arab Countries

Jews Who Fled from Arab Countries

Reparations for
Jews who Fled
from Arab Countries

The Other
Jews

Frequently
Asked Questions About Jews Who Fled/Left
Arab Countries


PALESTINIANS
AND THE
ARAB-ISRAEL
CONFLICT

Yemeni-Egyptian
View of
Palestinian
Conflict

The
Palestinians
Say ‘No’

Does Anybody Care About the Palestinians?


Trump
Peace  Proposals

2018-


VIDEOS

Palestinian
Refugees

Palestine
Refugee
Statistics

Legal
Situation of
Palestinian Refugees

Arab
Discrimination
Against
the Palestinian
Refugees

Lives of
Palestinian Refugees

Palestinian
Refugees
by
Country
_______

Refugee
Camps

Abbas
and the
Mufti of Jerusalem

Palestinian Refugees

Past, Present
and
Future


VIDEOS
UNWRA
and
UNHRC

UNWRA
and
UNHCR

UNWRA and
the USA

Why
UNWRA
Should be
Abolished

UNWRA
Education


Education
and
Health Care


VIDEOS
Peace
Radicals
Extremists
Martyrs

Extremists.
Radicals and
Martyrs


Palestinian
Groups

VIDEOS
Gaza & Hamas

Gaza

and

Hamas

Gaza Tunnels
and
Blockade

Gaza
The New
Tourist Hotspot

Hamas Covenant
and
History


VIDEOS
Palestinian
Corruption

Palestinian

Corruption

Payments to
Palestinians
in Prisons
and as Martyrs


Why Christians
have Fled from
Arab Countries


Links

CLICK HERE  TO ACCESS  COUNTRIES

T O P I C

I  S  R  A  E  L

Videos -

Maps -

Mogan David
(Flag of Israel)

Statistics  and Information

Jewish History
Videos


Expulsion
of the Jews  
from
Arab Countries,
1948-2012

Palestinians

Christians
Leaving the
Middle East


4000 YEARS OF
JEWISH HISTORY

Jewish
Timelines
and Story


What Was the Holocaust ?

Antisemitism


Who is a Jew?

The Jewish Law

The Hebrew Bible

Interpretation

The Temples

The Synagogues

Jewish Messiah
Ciaimants

Jewish Conversion

Jewish Women
in Judaism

Jewish
Education

Rabbi's
and
Jewish Culture  


Jewish Diaspora

Jewish Festivals

Jewish Languages


Lost Tribes

Jewish-Roman  Wars

Year 1000

Understanding the
Middle Ages

The Inquisition

Jewish Pirates


Why has Christendom
Attacked the Jews?

Catholicism

Islam

THE

INCREDIBLE

STORY OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE



























JEWISH EXILES

(See   Expulsion Jews )

Thriving, prosperous Jewish communities existed in the Middle East and North Africa about a thousand years before the rise of Islam and more than 2,500 years before the establishment of modern Arab nations. These communities, which extended from Iraq in the east to Morocco in the west, had a lively fabric of life and were influential in the local economies. Until the 10th century CE, 90% of the world's Jews lived in the areas of today's Arab countries.

At the end of the 1940's around 850,000 Jews lived in Arab countries (see table below). By 1967 most Jewish communities in these countries had disappeared, leaving a few thousand Jews spread over a wide area.

In 1946 with international expectation that a Jewish state was going to be established, the Arab League decided  to boycott all Jewish citizens living in Arab countries. With the United Nations adopting the Partition Plan (November 1947) riots broke across the Arab world against Jewish communities. Jewish shops and synagogues were ransacked and burned, hundreds of Jews were killed and thousands were imprisoned.

With the declaration of the establishment of the State of Israel in May 1948, the Arab League's Political Committee made recommendations to Arab and Muslim countries on how to treat Jews. This stated that Jews should be deprived of their citizenship as they were considered citizens of the newly established Jewish state. Assets were seized, bank accounts were frozen and property worth millions of dollars was nationalized. Jews were excluded from government ministries, restricted entry to public service causing many to lose their means of subsistence.

The anti-Jewish trend increased over time, and an organized plan of oppression and persecution was implemented against them in Arab countries. Between 1948 and 1951, about 850,000 Jews became refugees.






PALESTINE - NAME
(Palestine: History of a Name)


In 135 CE the Romans exiled the majority of the Jewish people after defeating the Bar Kochba revolt and renamed Judea “Palestina”. It then became part of the Roman province of “Syria Palestine” with the object of erasing the name ‘Judea’ from the map.

Leading up to Israel's independence in 1948, all those living in the British mandate of Palestine were called Palestinians. After 1967, when Israel captured the West Bank from Jordan,  the ‘refugees’ living there and in the Gaza Strip called themselves Palestinians instead of Jordanian or Egyptian. The Arabs refer to to the area as“Filastin.” as they cannot pronounce the word Palestine in their native tongue.  The word Palestine or Filastin does not appear in the Koran. The term peleset appears in the Jewish Tanakh no fewer than 250 times.


HAMAS COVENANT

(Hamas Covenant       Videos)

The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement was issued on  August 18, 1988. The Islamic Resistance Movement, also known as  the  HAMAS, is an extremist fundamentalist Islamic organization.  Its Covenant  is  a  comprehensive manifesto comprised of 36 separate articles, all of which promote the basic HAMAS goal of destroying the  State  of  Israel through  Jihad (Islamic  Holy  War).  
( For this reason it aims rockets at Israel; and trains militia.  Items allowed in are strictly monitored to prevent weapon entry and components that can be used with/for weapons.)

The  following  are  excerpts  of  the  HAMAS Covenant:

Goals of the HAMAS:

'The Islamic  Resistance  Movement  is  a  distinguished  Palestinian movement, whose allegiance is to Allah, and  whose  way  of  life  is Islam. It strives to raise the banner of Allah  over  every  inch  of Palestine.'    (Article 6)

On the Destruction of Israel:

'Israel will exist and  will  continue  to  exist  until  Islam will obliterate it, just as it obliterated others before it.'    (Preamble)

The Exclusive Moslem Nature of the Area:

'The  land  of  Palestine  is  an  Islamic  Waqf  [Holy Possession] consecrated for future Moslem generations until Judgment Day. No  one can renounce it or any part, or  abandon  it  or  any part of it.'  (Article 11)

'Palestine is  an  Islamic land...  Since  this  is  the  case,  the Liberation of Palestine  is  an individual  duty for every Moslem wherever he may be.'     (Article 13)


WHAT IS MEANT BY A REFUGEE

There is no international definition of what is meant by ‘refugee’.  UNWRA and UNHCR each has its own definition.  There would be a dramatic reduction in the number of claimed refugees if the \UNHCR definition was applied to UNWRA refugees.


PALESTINIAN REFUGEES

Gaza is controlled by a terrorist organisation called Hamas and, together with the West Bank Palestinian government, is  beset by corruption.  Entry/exit from Gaza is through two gates, one controlled by Israel the other by Egypt.  What is allowed to enter/exit is strictly monitored to control the entry of weapons and material with a dual use such as concrete which can be used for building and making tunnels.  It is described by Gazans as being ‘under siege. If there was peace there would be no ‘controls’

The Palestinian refugee problem originated as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, when five Arab armies invaded the State of Israel just hours after it was established. During the ensuing war, 700,000 Palestinian Arabs fled their homes in the newly created state. Many did so voluntarily to avoid the ongoing war or at the urging of Arab leaders who promised that all who left would return after a quick Arab victory over the new Jewish state. Other Palestinians were forced to flee by individuals or groups fighting for Israel.

Of the Palestinians who left, one-third went to the West Bank (which was under Jordan’s control), one-third went to the Gaza Strip (under Egypt’s control), and the remainder to Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. The Arab nations refused to absorb these Palestinians into their population and they were instead settled into refugee camps. Only Jordan’s King Abdullah agreed to confer citizenship on the 200,000 Palestinian living in Jordan and the Jordan-controlled West Bank and East Jerusalem. In 1949, UNRWA, (the United Nations Relief and Works Agency) was created. The Arab governments refused to consider integration, insisting that it would undermine the refugees’ “right” to return to their homes in Palestine.

During the 1967 Six Day War, another estimated 250,000 Palestinians fled the West Bank and Gaza Strip with the arrival of Israeli forces. Some of these were people who had left their homes in Israel in 1948. These individuals are considered by the international community to be displaced persons, not refugees.

 At the same time Jews who had lived in Arab countries for over 2,000 years fled and settled elsewhere.  They were given citizenship and built new lives.  

The 700,000 Palestinian Refugees of 1948 had grown to over 5,000,000 by 2015.   There are also many Palestinians not registered with them

By 2082,  it will be over 37,000,000, assuming the same growth rate - an increase of over 500,000 per annum.

The area occupied by Palestine refuges in Gaza is claimed to be the most densely populated area in the world.  It is expected to grow by over 120,000 per annum so that by 2082 there will be over 9,000,000.

The 1960’s saw a civil war in Jordan.  The very high proportion of Palestinian refugees created an organisation called Black September.  Their defeat led to their expulsion to Lebanon, the Israeli invasion there and their eventual expulsion. No one wants this to happen again.

Two examples of how information is currently expressed are:

The Independent, a special report by Judith Miller and David Samuels Wednesday 21 October 2009

It is a cynical but time-honoured practice in Middle Eastern politics: the statesmen who decry the political and humanitarian crisis of the approximately 3.9 million Palestinians in the Israeli-occupied West Bank and in Gaza ignore the plight of an estimated 4.6 million Palestinians who live in Arab countries. For decades, Arab governments have justified their decision to maintain millions of stateless Palestinians as refugees in squalid camps as a means of applying pressure to Israel. The refugee problem will be solved, they say, when Israel agrees to let the Palestinians have their own state.

fanack, Chronicle of the Middle East and North Africa October 2010, December 2016

According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS), there were 10.97 million Palestinians worldwide in 2010. 4.11 million Palestinians were living in Palestine (37.5 percent); 1.36 million (12.4 percent) in Israel; 3.24 million (29.8 percent) in Jordan; 1.78 (16.3 percent) in the other Arab countries, especially in neighbouring Lebanon and Syria; and 626,800 (5.7 percent) in the rest of the world.

The Palestinian refugees become a weapon against Israel. Most Palestinian Refugees are second class citizens, in Arab countries.  They would like to be treated as Jewish exiles who, after a short time stopped being called ‘refugees’ and  settled down as full citizens..    With the emergence of the PLO as a fully-fledged actor on the international scene in the mid-1970s,  The Arab host states’ political role as promoters of the refugees’ rights lost a great deal of its significance. The PLO, as the sole legitimate representative, managed to politicise the refugee question by turning it from an individual matter into the collective, national right of the Palestinian people. The Palestinians and the Arab Israel Conflict

Palestine Refugees have a young population who suffer from the high unemployment in a highly charged political atmosphere.  Two ways of receiving income are by joining a militia and by being sent to prison after committing a terrorist act against Israel. They are taught from an early age that their problems are due to Israel and that these are acts of jihad .

An example of their problems is the electricity crisis in Gaza.  Residents of the Hamas-controlled enclave are forced to cook, do laundry, recharge phones and computers with only 3-4 hours of power a day.  Wealthy residents have their own power generators.  the World Health Organization has been warned.that Hospitals in Gaza will face an almost total power blackout by the end of February 2018 unless funding is secured to keep emergency generators running, They are reliant on emergency generators for up to 20 hours a day. Medical staff have been forced to cut back on basic services such as equipment sterilisation and diagnostics. About 500,000 litres of fuel are required each month to sustain critical care.


UNWRA and UNHCR

THERE ARE TWO UN REFUGEE ORGANISATIONS
(Why UNWRA should be Abolished)

-

(UNWRA) was formed in 1948 to look after Palestinian refugees.  

It was thought it would be disbanded within a few years.   it still exists 70 years later with 30,000 employees and a budget of over $1,000,000,000 per year  mostly paid by Western countries with the Arab countries contributing little except for special projects.  It has been called a semi-state by taking on functions such as education, health and the 58 refugee camps.  It has over 30,000 employees for Palestinian Refugees while UNHCR has 10,800 employees to deal with the rest of the world.

It is estimated that only 40-70,000 of the original 700,000 refugees are alive. (For more detail see ‘The Legal Status of Palestinian Refugees’)

UNHCR was formed in 1949 to look after refugees from the rest of the world. As of 30 June 2017 it has 10,966 staff.   its annual budget rose to more than US$ 1 billion in the early 1990s and reached a new annual high of US$ 7.7 billion in 2017. It is funded almost entirely by voluntary contributions, with 87 per cent from governments and the European Union. Only one per cent is from the from the UN budget.  Its Annual Report shows there were 65.6 million forcibly displaced people worldwide, 22.5 million refugees (5.3 million under UNWRA), 10 million stateless people and that they resettled 189,300 people in 2016

Their definition of ‘refugee’ differs.

UNWRA it is heritable  Refugee status to be inherited by descendants. This explains the expansion of UNWRA

UNHCR  is not heritable   Refugee status cannot be inherited by descendants.


ARAB DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE PALESTINIANS
(For more detail go to Arab Discrimination Against the Palestinians)

Palestinians, especially Palestinian Refugees, have suffered from abuse and discrimination throughout the Arab world.   Treated as second class citizens they have been/are barred from jobs, lost their home and been exiled from and refused admission to Arab countries.


REBUILDING THE MIDDLE EAST
(For more detail go to Arab States at a Critical Point)

The Syrian civil war will finish within the next few years.  The country will be left in a state of destruction which will require international help, amounting to billions of dollars, for rebuilding and resettling.  Conversations have started as to how this should be done.   Parallel to this, rebuilding is required in Iraq and Yemen. This can mean a new life for Palestinian Refugees.  Through settlement and citizenship in Arab countries they lose their description of ‘refugee’ and go from unemployment to employment.   How this change can takes place is overlaid with politics and corruption and not with Palestine refugees.


EDUCATION

UNWRA is responsible for over 500,000 students.  
It spends more than 50% of its annual budget on education.

Children are brainwashed in schools to believe that Israel is ‘the eternal enemy’ and that they are engaged in jihad (warfare) against them to recover the land Israel occupies for the Arabs.  In Gaza this is expressed in the Hamas Covenant and explains why the Palestinians Say ‘NO’
in negotiations with Israel, military drills and how and why they should fire guns.


FINANCE
PALESTINIAN ECONOMY FACING FISCAL, PENSIONS CRISIS
WORLD BANK
Luke Baker, September 15, 2016

Foreign support to the Palestinian Authority has fallen by nearly 50 percent in the past three years, leaving the budget under severe strain and the pensions system close to collapse, the World Bank said on Thursday.

While the Palestinian Authority, overseen by President Mahmoud Abbas, has done well to reduce the deficit over the past decade, cutting it by 15 percentage points to 10 percent of GDP, external financial support has fallen even faster.

In 2013, foreign donors -- mainly the European Union and the United States -- provided direct budget assistance worth nearly $1.3 billion. This year, that figure is expected to be less than $700 million, leaving a large financing gap.

“The Palestinian economic outlook is worrying with serious consequences on income, opportunity and well-being,” said Marina Wes, World Bank country director for the West Bank and Gaza.

“Not only will it affect the Palestinian Authority’s capacity to deliver services to its citizens, it may also lead to wider economic problems and instability.”

Overall, the Palestinian economy is expected to grow at around 3.5 percent in the coming years. But the outlook is starkly different between the West Bank, where the Palestinian Authority is based, and Gaza, the blockaded coastal strip that has been run by the Islamist group Hamas since 2007.

Unemployment in Gaza stands at 42 percent and the territory is struggling to rebuild after a month-long war with Israel in 2014. Many international aid pledges have not been met.

By contrast, West Bank unemployment stands at 18 percent and the Palestinian Authority is doing a better job of managing spending and generating extra revenue from fees and taxes.

Yet the critical problem remains the financing gap. The Palestinian Authority is close to the borrowing limit from domestic banks set by the central bank and may have to resort to running into arrears with the pension fund and private suppliers to fill the gap, the World Bank said.

“The stock of arrears to the pension system is estimated at $1.6 billion -- and it threatens the viability of the overall pension system,” it said in its latest monitoring report.

“Arrears to the private sector currently stand at $590 million, which heavily weighs on the private sector’s ability to operate normally and is damaging for the economy.”

The World Bank said the only way to avoid wider economic problems for the 4.8 million Palestinians living in the West Bank and Gaza was for foreign donors to reverse the fall in support.

It also called on the Israeli government, which collects many taxes and fees on the Palestinians’ behalf, to explore ways of reducing the fiscal loss and reverting more of the revenue to the Palestinian Authority.













______________________

THE FUTURE

______________________


The theory of change states that regular change occurs in small steps (incrementalism).
until they are no longer adequate.  Major change is required,
as with product redesign and company reorganisation.

70 years have been spent on trying to resolve the Palestine Refugee issue with no results.  
Major change as to how this will be achieved is required so that the Palestinian Refugees,
can be resettled and have a prosperous future.

This is just as Jewish Exiles from Arab countries, who wished to, were resettled in Israel

______________________


A BETTER MIDDLE EAST FUTURE BY
COOPERATION INSTEAD OF OPPOSITION

What is the difference between Jewish exiles from Arab countries and Palestinian Refugees?

Jewish exiles were settled quickly and no longer existed as refugees.

After 70 years Palestinian Refugees have not been settled by Arab countries
and are still called ‘refugees’ with no sign of resettlement.


Why are Palestinian Refugees and refugees from the rest of the world supported by different UN agencies?

Because UNWRA was established first and only applied to Palestinian refugees.  The following year UNHCR was established for the rest of the world.  

We have now reached the ‘tipping point’ in the Palestine Refugee Story


The Trump Peace Proposals
have started this change.

Go to together to see how we can work together


THIS TOPIC IS DIVIDED INTO TWO PARTS


Part 1  MODERN HISTORY OF ISRAEL

Part 2  JEWISH EXILES FROM ARAB COUNTRIES and

PALESTINIAN REFUGEES

SUMMARY

JEWISH EXILES FROM ARAB COUNTRIES
 and PALESTINIAN REFUGEES

Jewish
Exiles

Palestine -
Name


Hamas Covenant

Palestinian
 Refugees

UNWRA
and
UNHCR

Arab Discrimination Against the Palestinians

Rebuilding
the
Middle East


Finance

The
Future


MARGINAL DIFFERENCES ARE GIVEN QUOTED FIGURES
DEPENDING UPON SOURCE

WHAT IS IMPORTANT IS THE WASTE OF RESOURCES AND
THE BAD EFFECT OF CONFLICT INSTEAD OF COOPERATION.


AN ARAB-CHRISTIAN DIPLOMAT AND ATTORNEY SPEAKS ABOUT ARABS, JEWS AND PEACE

Medisraelforfred  1 Oct 2014, 30.12
On September 27, 2014, at an event hosted by Med Israel for Fred (With Israel for peace) in the House of Literature, Oslo, was given by George Deek, an Arab-Christian who was the Chargé d’Affaires of the Embassy of Israel in Norway. The text has been excerpted due to space limitations.

CLICK HERE FOR SPEECH TEXT


WHAT WILL THE ISRAELI AND PALESTINIAN ECONOMIES LOOK LIKE
IN 2024?

RAND INTERNATIONAL

A Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

Provides the Best Economic Outcomes    Jun 8, 2015

The Israeli economy stands to gain more than $120 billion over the next decade in a two-state solution, a possible resolution of the long-standing conflict between Israelis and Palestinians. Palestinians would gain $50 billion, with average per-capita income rising by about 36 percent.