MODERN
HISTORY

OF
ISRAEL


SUMMARY

JEWISH EXILES FROM ARAB COUNTRIES
________

PALESTINIAN REFUGEES


Questions we Need to Ask to Understand the Background


Palestine
Name


VIDEOS
Jews Who Fled from Arab Countries

Jews Who Fled from Arab Countries

Reparations for
Jews who Fled
from Arab Countries


Arab League
and the
Arab–Israeli
Conflict


VIDEOS

Palestinian
Refugees

Palestine
Refugee
Statistics

Legal
Palestine Refugees

Arab
Discrimination
and Abuse
Against
Palestinians

Lives of
Palestinian Refugees

Palestinian
Refugees
by
Country
_______

Refugee
Camps

Palestinian Refugees

Past, Present
and
Future


VIDEOS
UNWRA
and
UNHRC

UNWRA
and
UNHCR

UNWRA and
the USA

Why
UNWRA
Should be
Abolished

UNWRA
Education


VIDEOS
Peace
Radicals
Extremists
Martyrs

Extremists.
Radicals and
Martyrs

Payments to Palestinians
in Prisons
and as Ma
rtyrs


Palestinian
Groups

VIDEOS
Gaza & Hamas

Gaza

and

Hamas

Hamas Covenant
and
History


VIDEOS
Palestinian
Corruption

Palestinian

Corruption

Payments to
Palestinians
in Prisons
and as Martyrs


Why Christians
have Fled from
Arab Countries


Links

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Expulsion of the Jews  
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THE

INCREDIBLE

STORY OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE



























JEWISH EXILES

(See   Expulsion Jews )

Thriving, prosperous Jewish communities existed in the Middle East and North Africa about a thousand years before the rise of Islam and more than 2,500 years before the establishment of modern Arab nations. These communities, which extended from Iraq in the east to Morocco in the west, had a lively fabric of life and were influential in the local economies. Until the 10th century C.E., 90% of the world's Jews lived in the areas of today's Arab countries.

Since the end of the 1940's around 850,000 Jews lived in Arab countries but by 1967 most Jewish communities in these countries had disappeared, leaving a few thousand Jews spread over a wide area.

Due to international expectation that a Jewish state was going to be established, the Arab League decided in 1946 to boycott all Jewish citizens living in Arab countries. With the United Nations adopting the Partition Plan (November 1947) riots broke across the Arab world against Jewish communities. Jewish shops and synagogues were ransacked and burned, hundreds of Jews were killed and thousands were imprisoned.

With the declaration of the establishment of the State of Israel in May 1948, the Arab League's Political Committee convened and formulated recommendations for all Arab and Muslim countries which specified how to treat Jews in those countries. Among other things the document stated the Jews should be deprived of their citizenship as they were considered citizens of the newly established Jewish state. Assets were seized, bank accounts were frozen and property worth millions of dollars was nationalized. Jews were excluded from government ministries, restricted entry to public service causing many to lose their means of subsistence.

The anti-Jewish trend only increased over time, and an organized plan of oppression and persecution was implemented against the Jews in Arab countries. Between 1948 and 1951, about 850,000 Jews were expelled or, as explained above, forced out of Arab countries and became refugees. In fact, a two-way migration of populations began, along with the creation of two different refugee groups. The Arab nations, led by the Arab League, were responsible for causing both groups of refugees, Jews and Palestinians.






PALESTINE - NAME
(Palestine: History of a Name)


In 135 CE the Romans exiled the majority of the Jewish people after defeating the Bar Kochba revolt and renamed Judea “Palestina”. It then became part of the Roman province of “Syria Palestine” with the object of erasing the name ‘Judea’ from the map.

Leading up to Israel's independence in 1948, all those living in the British mandate of Palestine were called Palestinians. After 1967, when Israel capture the West Bank from Jordan,  the ‘refugees’ living there and in the Gaza Strip called themselves Palestinians. The Arabs refer to to the area as“Filastin.” as they cannot pronounce the word Palestine in their native tongue.  The word Palestine or Filastin does not appear in the Koran. The term peleset appears in the Jewish Tanakh no fewer than 250 times.


HAMAS COVENANT

(Hamas Covenant       Videos)

The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement was issued on  August 18, 1988. The Islamic Resistance Movement, also known as  the  HAMAS, is an extremist fundamentalist Islamic organization.  Its Covenant  is  a  comprehensive manifesto comprised of 36 separate articles, all of which promote the basic HAMAS goal of destroying the  State  of  Israel  
through  Jihad (Islamic  Holy  War).  
( For this reason it aims rockets at Israel; and trains militia.  Items allowed in are strictly monitored to prevent weapon entry and components that can be used with/for weapons.)

The  following  are  excerpts  of  the  HAMAS Covenant:

Goals of the HAMAS:

'The Islamic  Resistance  Movement  is  a  distinguished  Palestinian movement, whose allegiance is to Allah, and  whose  way  of  life  is Islam. It strives to raise the banner of Allah  over  every  inch  of Palestine.'    (Article 6)

On the Destruction of Israel:

'Israel will exist and  will  continue  to  exist  until  Islam will obliterate it, just as it obliterated others before it.'    (Preamble)

The Exclusive Moslem Nature of the Area:

'The  land  of  Palestine  is  an  Islamic  Waqf  [Holy Possession] consecrated for future Moslem generations until Judgment Day. No  one can renounce it or any part, or  abandon  it  or  any part of it.'  (Article 11)

'Palestine is  an  Islamic land...  Since  this  is  the  case,  the Liberation of Palestine  is  an individual  duty for every Moslem wherever he may be.'     (Article 13)


PALESTINIAN REFUGEES PROBLEM

The story of the Palestinian Refugees is a catastrophe.  In 1948 the Jewish population of the British mandate of Palestine agreed to accept the boundary allocated to them in the UN Partition Map.  The day after they declared the State of Israel they were attacked by the armies of the surrounding countries .  The result was the (unexpected) defeat of these armies and the creation of 700,000 Palestinian refugees (this figure varies from 650,000 - 750,000).  At the same time Jews who had lived in Arab countries for over 2,000 years fled and settled elsewhere.  They were given citizenship and built new lives.  

This ‘problem’ was created for political reasons.  There would be no ‘problem’ had the Arab countries offered the Palestinian refugees the help received by the Jewish exiles, that is as a ‘transfer of population’.

Gaza is controlled by a terrorist organisation called Hamas and, together with the West Bank Palestinian government, is  beset by corruption.  Entry/exit from Gaza is through two gates, one controlled by Israel the other by Egypt.  What is allowed to enter/exit is strictly monitored to for example to control the entry of weapons and material with a dual use such as concrete which can be used for building and making tunnels.  It is described by Gazans as being ‘under siege. If there was peace there would be no ‘controls’

The Palestinian refugee problem originated as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, when five Arab armies invaded the State of Israel just hours after it was established. During the ensuing war, 700,000 Palestinian Arabs fled their homes in the newly created state. Many did so voluntarily to avoid the ongoing war or at the urging of Arab leaders who promised that all who left would return after a quick Arab victory over the new Jewish state. Other Palestinians were forced to flee by individuals or groups fighting for Israel.

Of the Palestinians who left, one-third went to the West Bank (which was under Jordan’s control), one-third went to the Gaza Strip (under Egypt’s control), and the remainder to Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. The Arab nations refused to absorb these Palestinians into their population and they were instead settled into refugee camps. Only Jordan’s King Abdullah agreed to confer citizenship on the 200,000 Palestinian living in Jordan and the Jordan-controlled West Bank and East Jerusalem. In 1949, UNRWA, (the United Nations Relief and Works Agency) was created. The Arab governments refused to consider integration, insisting that it would undermine the refugees’ “right” to return to their homes in Palestine.

During the 1967 Six Day War, another estimated 250,000 Palestinians fled the West Bank and Gaza Strip with the arrival of Israeli forces. Some of these were people who had left their homes in Israel in 1948. These individuals are considered by the international community to be displaced persons, not refugees.

The story of the Palestinian Refugees is a catastrophe.  In 1948 the Jewish population of the British mandate of Palestine agreed to accept the boundary allocated to them in the UN Partition Map.  The day after they declared the State of Israel they were attacked by the armies of the surrounding countries .  The result was the (unexpected) defeat of these armies and the creation of 700,000 Palestinian refugees (this figure varies from 650,000 - 750,000).  At the same time Jews who had lived in Arab countries for over 2,000 years fled and settled elsewhere.  They were given citizenship and built new lives.  

This ‘problem’ was created for political reasons.  There would be no ‘problem’ had the Arab countries offered the Palestinian refugees the help received by the Jewish exiles, that is as a ‘transfer of population’.

Gaza is controlled by a terrorist organisation called Hamas and, together with the West Bank Palestinian government, is  beset by corruption.  Entry/exit from Gaza is through two gates, one controlled by Israel the other by Egypt.  What is allowed to enter/exit is strictly monitored. It is described by Gazans as being ‘under siege.  Tunnels are built from Gaza to provide entry/exit points to/from Gaza and when found are destroyed by Israel and Egypt.

In 1948 the British mandate of Palestine was split between the Jews and Arabs.  The Jewish area became Israel.  The following day it was invaded by 5 Arab armies whose objectives were to eliminate Israel.  The opposite happened and the area occupied by Israel grew in size

700,000 Arabs fled from their homes based on a combination of fear and requests by the invading armies.  They thought they would return within a few weeks.  Instead they were refused readmission by Israel  and became the Palestine refugees, mostly in the area that was now occupied by Jordan.  

There were 700,000 Palestinian Refugees in 1948.  This had grown to over 5,000,000 by 2015.

By 2082,  it will be over 37,000,000, assuming the same growth rate - an increase of over 500,000 per annum.

The area occupied by Palestine refuges in Gaza is claimed to be the most densely populated area in the world.  It is expected to grow by over 120,000 per annum so that by 2082 there will be over 9,000,000.

Their existing locations cannot support this growth level.  Arab countries can support this growth level and increase their prosperity.  

In the 1960’s the very high proportion of Palestinian refugees led to Black September which led to a civil war in Jordan, their expulsion to Lebanon, the Israeli invasion and their expulsion from Lebanon. This is something no one wants to happen again.

There were 5,266,603 Palestinian refugees registered with UNWRA in 2016.  There are also many not registered with them.  Exactly how many would claim any reparations is unknown. Different web sites quote different figures but the number affected by any policy decision could be higher than those given below.

Two examples of how information is expressed are:

The Independent, a special report by Judith Miller and David Samuels Wednesday 21 October 2009

It is a cynical but time-honoured practice in Middle Eastern politics: the statesmen who decry the political and humanitarian crisis of the approximately 3.9 million Palestinians in the Israeli-occupied West Bank and in Gaza ignore the plight of an estimated 4.6 million Palestinians who live in Arab countries. For decades, Arab governments have justified their decision to maintain millions of stateless Palestinians as refugees in squalid camps as a means of applying pressure to Israel. The refugee problem will be solved, they say, when Israel agrees to let the Palestinians have their own state.

fanack, Chronicle of the Middle East and North Africa October 2010, December 2016

According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS), there were 10.97 million Palestinians worldwide in 2010. 4.11 million Palestinians were living in Palestine (37.5 percent); 1.36 million (12.4 percent) in Israel; 3.24 million (29.8 percent) in Jordan; 1.78 (16.3 percent) in the other Arab countries, especially in neighbouring Lebanon and Syria; and 626,800 (5.7 percent) in the rest of the world.

The Arab League decided that the Palestinian refugees should become a weapon against Israel and citizenship in Arab countries should not be offered to them.

Today, most Palestinian Refugees want to lose their refugee status and not second class citizens, in Arab countries. If this happened UNWRA would be abolished as there will no longer be any Palastinre Refugeed and so it will no longer has any function. Its functions would be passed to UNHCR and each state as appropriate so creating unified and not dual systems as for example with education.

Palestine Refugees have a young population who suffer from the high unemployment in a highly charged political atmosphere.  Joining a militia is one way of filling in their time and receiving income. Being sent to prison for committing a terrorist act against Israel is another way of receiving income.  They are taught from an early age that their problems are due to Israel.

An example of their problems is the electricity crisis in Gaza.  Residents of the Hamas-controlled enclave are forced to cook, do laundry, recharge phones and computers with only 3-4 hours of power a day.  Wealthier residents use their own power generators.  Hospitals in Gaza will face an almost total power blackout by the end of February unless funding is secured to keep emergency generators running, the World Health Organization has warned.

An ongoing electricity crisis in Gaza has left hospitals reliant on emergency generators for up to 20 hours a day, while medical staff have been forced to cut back on basic services such as equipment sterilisation and diagnostics. About 500,000 litres of fuel are required each month to sustain critical care in Gaza, but funding will only cover hospitals’ needs until the end of February.

UNWRA and UNHCR

THERE ARE TWO UN REFUGEE ORGANISATIONS
(Why UNWRA should be Abolished)

-

(UNWRA) was formed in 1948 to look after Palestinian refugees.  

It was thought it would be disbanded in a few years.   it still exists 70 years later with 30,000 employees and a budget of over $1,000,000,000 per year  mostly paid by Western countries with the Arab countries contributing little except for special projects.  

UNWRA has been called a semi-state by taking on functions such as education, health and the 58 refugee camps.  It has over 30,000 employees for Palestinian Refugees while UNHCR has 10,800 employees to deal with the rest of the world.

After 70  years the original 700,000  has grown to over  5,000,000 (registered and unregistered with UNWRA) . It is estimated that only 40-70,000 of the original refugees are alive. (For more detail see ‘The Legal Status of Palestinian Refugees’)

UNHCR was formed in 1949 to look after refugees from the rest of the world.

Their definition of ‘refugee’ differs.

Within UNWRA it is heritable   The number of Palestine refugees from a family expands as their status can be passed to future generations

Within UNHCR it is not heritable .  A refugees status is NOT passed to future generations so the number from a family cannot expand.


ARAB DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE PALESTINIANS
(For more detail go to Arab Discrimination Against the Palestinians)

Palestinians, especially Palestinian Refugees, have suffered from abuse and discrimination throughout the Arab world.   Treated as second class citizens they have been barred from jobs, lost their home and been exiled from and refused admission to Arab countries.


REBUILDING THE MIDDLE EAST
(For more detail go to Arab States at a Critical Point)

The Syrian civil war will finish within the next few years.  The country will be left in a state of destruction which will require international help, amounting to billions of dollars, for rebuilding and resettling.  Conversations have already started as to how this should be done.   Parallel to this rebuilding is required in other Arab countries. This will mean a new life for Palestinian Refugees.  Settlement and citizenship in Arab countries will mean they lose their description of ‘refugee’ and going from unemployment to employment.  Today they find employment by joining a militia and spending their time talking about the militia and their which is blamed on Israel.  How this change takes place is overlaid with politics and corruption and not with Palestine refugees.

______________________

FINANCE
PALESTINIAN ECONOMY FACING FISCAL, PENSIONS CRISIS
WORLD BANK
Luke Baker, September 15, 2016

Foreign support to the Palestinian Authority has fallen by nearly 50 percent in the past three years, leaving the budget under severe strain and the pensions system close to collapse, the World Bank said on Thursday.

While the Palestinian Authority, overseen by President Mahmoud Abbas, has done well to reduce the deficit over the past decade, cutting it by 15 percentage points to 10 percent of GDP, external financial support has fallen even faster.

In 2013, foreign donors -- mainly the European Union and the United States -- provided direct budget assistance worth nearly $1.3 billion. This year, that figure is expected to be less than $700 million, leaving a large financing gap.

“The Palestinian economic outlook is worrying with serious consequences on income, opportunity and well-being,” said Marina Wes, World Bank country director for the West Bank and Gaza.

“Not only will it affect the Palestinian Authority’s capacity to deliver services to its citizens, it may also lead to wider economic problems and instability.”

Overall, the Palestinian economy is expected to grow at around 3.5 percent in the coming years. But the outlook is starkly different between the West Bank, where the Palestinian Authority is based, and Gaza, the blockaded coastal strip that has been run by the Islamist group Hamas since 2007.

Unemployment in Gaza stands at 42 percent and the territory is struggling to rebuild after a month-long war with Israel in 2014. Many international aid pledges have not been met.

By contrast, West Bank unemployment stands at 18 percent and the Palestinian Authority is doing a better job of managing spending and generating extra revenue from fees and taxes.

Yet the critical problem remains the financing gap. The Palestinian Authority is close to the borrowing limit from domestic banks set by the central bank and may have to resort to running into arrears with the pension fund and private suppliers to fill the gap, the World Bank said.

“The stock of arrears to the pension system is estimated at $1.6 billion -- and it threatens the viability of the overall pension system,” it said in its latest monitoring report.

“Arrears to the private sector currently stand at $590 million, which heavily weighs on the private sector’s ability to operate normally and is damaging for the economy.”

The World Bank said the only way to avoid wider economic problems for the 4.8 million Palestinians living in the West Bank and Gaza was for foreign donors to reverse the fall in support.

It also called on the Israeli government, which collects many taxes and fees on the Palestinians’ behalf, to explore ways of reducing the fiscal loss and reverting more of the revenue to the Palestinian Authority.

______________________

THE FUTURE

______________________

The theory of change states that regular change occurs in small steps (incrementalism).
until they are no longer adequate.  Major change is required,
for example as with product redesign and company reorganisation.

70 years have been spent on trying to resolve the Palestine Refugee issue with no results.  
Major change as to how this will be achieved is required so that the Palestinian Refugees,
who wish to can be resettled as citizens of Arab countries
This just as Jewish Exiles from Arab countries, who wished to, were resettled in Israel

______________________


A BETTER MIDDLE EAST FUTURE BY
COOPERATION INSTEAD OF OPPOSITION

What is the difference between Jewish exiles from Arab countries and Palestinian Refugees?

Jewish exiles were settled quickly and so no longer exist

After 70 years Palestinian Refugees have not been settled by Arab countries
and are still called ‘refugees’ with no sign of resettlement.


Why are Palestinian Refugees and refugees from the rest of the world supported by different UN agencies?

Because UNWRA was established before UNHCR

SO WHAT CAN WE DO?

The principles of the plan to change the current situation proposed by Shabtai Shavit are

1. The United Nations should decide to shut down UNRWA over the course of three years.

2. The 27 states that donate to UNRWA will establish a body whose role is to finance the resettlement of refugees, who choose to do so of their own free choice, in states around the world that accept migrants.

Many surveys conducted over the years show that, according to the statistical average, at least 50% of refugees were willing to resettle with financial support. A recent poll conducted by the Palestinian Center for Public Opinion during the period of June 16-24, 2014 (i.e., before Operation Protective Edge), covering a random sample of 1012 Palestinian respondents representing the various demographic groups of adult Palestinians (eighteen years and above) living in the “West Bank,” East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip, showed that 70% of the Palestinians would like to emigrate if given the opportunity.

3. Donations from these states should be gradually diverted from their current goal of preservation alone, to the goal of resettlement. In other words, the funds should foster the transformation of refugees from parasites with no future to people who create and contribute to their families, communities and society—people who stand tall.

Editors addition

The name Palestine Refugee’ will vanish

In 1948 there were Jewish exiles and Palestinian refugees.  A reparations agreement could make Israel responsible for the Jewish exiles and the Arab countries for Palestinian refugees.  Reparations could be based on those applicable in each group who are still alive.


WHAT WILL THE ISRAELI AND PALESTINIAN ECONOMIES LOOK LIKE IN 2024?

RAND INTERNATIONAL










IF NO AGREEMENT IS REACHED

WILL THIS HAPPEN AND BECOME THE NEW ARAB SPRING ?

An internal revolution that will create a government concerned about the well being of the citizens it represents and eliminate problems such as the severe electricity shortages, health care crisis, severe food shortage in Gaza and high unemployment and reliance on international donations

  
WILL THE BENEFITS OF COOPERATION SPREAD ?
or

WILL THE PALESTINE REFUGEES FACE FURTHER DETERIORATION
IN THE QUALITY OF THEIR LIFE ?

and

HOW WILL THE WORLD COMMUNITY FACE THE MAJOR GROWTH
IN THE PALESTINIAN POPULATION ?


THIS TOPIC IS DIVIDED INTO TWO PARTS


Part 1  MODERN HISTORY OF ISRAEL

Part 2  JEWISH EXILES FROM ARAB COUNTRIES and

PALESTINIAN REFUGEES

SUMMARY

JEWISH EXILES FROM ARAB COUNTRIES
 and PALESTINIAN REFUGEES

Jewish
Exiles

Palestine -
Name


Hamas Covenant

Palestinian
 Refugees

UNWRA
and
UNHCR

Arab Discrimination Against the Palestinians

Rebuilding
the
Middle East


Finance

The
Future

MARGINAL DIFFERENCES ARE GIVEN QUOTED FIGURES
DEPENDING UPON SOURCE

WHAT IS IMPORTANT IS THE EFFECT OF THE
HIGH PALESTINIAN GROWTH RATE
AND ITS EFFECT ON THE FUTURE.


AN ARAB-CHRISTIAN DIPLOMAT AND ATTORNEY SPEAKS ABOUT ARABS, JEWS AND PEACE

Medisraelforfred  1 Oct 2014, 30.12
On September 27, 2014, at an event hosted by Med Israel for Fred (With Israel for peace) in the House of Literature, Oslo, a captivating speech was given by George Deek, an Arab-Christian who served as Chargé d’Affaires of the Embassy of Israel in Norway. The text has been excerpted due to space limitations.

CLICK HERE FOR SPEECH TEXT


A Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

Provides the Best Economic Outcomes    Jun 8, 2015

The Israeli economy stands to gain more than $120 billion over the next decade in a two-state solution, a possible resolution of the long-standing conflict between Israelis and Palestinians. Palestinians would gain $50 billion, with average per-capita income rising by about 36 percent.