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WHAT DO WE MEAN BY
ANTISEMITISM?

THE
MUTATING VIRUS:
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ANTISEMITISM

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THE PITTSBURGH TRAGEDY


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Tel Aviv University    Worldwide
Anti- Semitism


THE EVOLUTION
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Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.  A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is generally considered to be a form of racism.  It has been/is used as a political ideology opposed to liberalism.

The term ‘antisemiteism’ only appeared at the end of the nineteenth century (see Wilhelm Marr).  Many have since used the term anti-judaica when writing about it earlier.  Its evolution is discussed at The Evolution of Antisemitism)

There has been/is a lot of argument as to what the term means.  In 2005, the EU Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC), now the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA), adopted a “working definition on antisemitism”.  This is now in use worldwide (see What is antisemitism)


The Jews have been/are a minority who have been/are blamed by the majority for any of the following reasons


Economic -- "We hate Jews because they possess too much wealth and power."

Chosen People -- "We hate Jews because they arrogantly claim that they are the chosen people."

Scapegoat -- "Jews are a convenient group to single out and blame for our troubles."
(In "We Remember: A Reflection on the Shoah” an important part of Church preparations for the upcoming millenial celebrations it was admitted that the Jews had for centuries been discriminated against and used as scapegoats, and .... misguided interpretations of Christian teachings had on occasion nurtured such behavior - See Part 8 ‘The Pope and the Holocaust’)

Deicide -- "We hate Jews because they killed Jesus."

Outsiders, -- "We hate Jews because they are different to us." (The dislike of the unlike.)

Racial Theory -- "We hate Jews because they are an inferior race."

CONTRADICTIONS IN REASON

Economic -- The Jews of 17th - 20th century Poland and Russia were dirt poor, had no influence and yet they were hated.

Chosen People -- a) In the late 19th century, the Jews of Germany denied "Choseness." And then they worked on assimilation. Yet, the holocaust started there. b) Christians and Moslems profess to being the "Chosen people" yet, the world and the antisemites tolerate them.

Scapegoat -- Any group must already be hated to be an effective scapegoat. The Scapegoat Theory does not then cause antisemitism. Rather, antisemitism is what makes the Jews a convenient scapegoat target. Hitler's ranting and ravings would not be taken seriously if he had said, "It's the bicycle riders and the midgets who are destroying our society."

Deicide -- a) the Christian Bible says the Romans killed Jesus, though Jews are mentioned as accomplices (claims that Jews killed Jesus came several hundred years later). Why then have the (claimed) accomplices been persecuted while there has never been an anti-Roman movement?
b) Jesus himself said, "Forgive them (i.e. the Jews), for they know not what they do." The Second Vatican Council in 1963 officially exonerated the Jews as the killers of Jesus.
Neither statement of Christian belief reduced antisemitism.

Outsiders -- With the Enlightenment in the late 18th century, many Jews rushed to assimilate and antisemitism should have stopped. Instead, for example, with the Nazis came the cry, in essence: "We hate you, not because you're different, but because you're trying to become like us! We cannot allow you to infect the Aryan race with your inferior genes."

Racial Theory -- The problem with this theory is that it is self-contradictory: Jews are not a race. Anyone can become a Jew - and members of every race, creed and color in the world have become Jews at one time or another.  

This blame has been/is seen in the following ways

Expulsion * Forced Conversion * Burning Alive * Forced to Wear Badges

Forced Conversion * Holocaust * Pogrom * Book Confiscation * Ghettos

Book Burning * Jews Enslaved * Stake Burnings * Extra Tax

Property Confiscation and Destruction * Judaism Outlawed * Mob Attacks * Torture Synagogue Burning * Land Confiscation * Mass Arrests * Boycotts

        

Today, daily consequences are discrimination, the major expense of sophisticated security systems, airport queues, guarding against planes being hijacked or blown up in mid flight, on a bus or tube and someone going into a civilian area and blowing up those around them.  



ANTISEMITISM
IT DIDN’T JUST START WITH HITLER

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4000 Years of Jewish History

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BDS ANTISEMITISM


NY Times review of  ‘The Popes Against the Jews’
by David Kertzer,  2001


ANTISEMITISM - OVERVIEW



MEASURING THE HATE: THE STATE OF ANTISEMITISM IN SOCIAL MEDIA
Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 03 Feb 2016

This major new report highlights that not enough is being done to combat antisemitism in social media. Tracking over 2,000 items of antisemitism over the last 10 months, it found that only 20% of the items were removed.

A major new report prepared for the Global Forum to Combat Antisemitism, "Measuring the Hate: The State of Antisemitism in Social Media", highlights that not enough is being done to combat antisemitism in social media. The report, based on tracking over 2,000 items of antisemitism over the last 10 months, found that only 20% of the items were removed.


Traditional antisemitism made up almost half the sample and covered content such as conspiracy theories, racial slurs, and accusations such as the blood libel. The report also outlines where each type of antisemitism occurs, with content promoting violence against Jews far more likely to be found on Twitter (63% on Twitter, 23% on YouTube and 14% on Facebook), while content promoting Holocaust denial was more likely to be found on YouTube (44% YouTube, 38% Twitter, 18% Facebook).

The report highlights significant variations in the responses of the social media companies to online antisemitism. More significantly, the response by each company was found to vary depending on the nature of the antisemitism.

Download full report

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

On January 9, 2015 four French Jews were killed in an attack on the Hypercacher kosher supermarket in Paris, which was targeted following the attack on the offices of Charlie Hebdo and an aborted attack on a Jewish center which left a police woman dead. On February 15th Dan Uzan, a community security volunteer, was killed outside the Great Synagogue in Copenhagen, Denmark. In Israel there were a multitude of fatal knife attacks on Jewish targets. The far right is gaining in popularity, particularly in parts of Europe, while antisemitism from parts of the Muslim and Arab world inspire self-radicalisation and violent extremism. These are just some of the results of rising antisemitism in 2015, and highlight the need for urgent action.

Through the Internet, antisemitic content and messages spread across national borders, feeding not only anti-Jewish hate, but violent extremism more generally. Removing the online incitement which leads to knife attacks in Israel is part and parcel of tackling the larger problem of online incitement which has also led to a dramatic increase in attacks on refugees in Germany. Responding to the rising social media incitement and very real consequences, German prosecutors opening an investigation into the possibility of criminal liability of senior Facebook executives in late 2015.

Following this move an agreement was reached between the German Government, Facebook, Google and Twitter to see content that violated German law removed within 24 hours. Facebook has since gone further and announced a project to tackle online hate in Europe.

As 2016 starts it is clear we have reached a point where the status quo is no longer acceptable. Social media platforms are being clearly told by governments around the world that if they don't do better to combating incitement, hate and the use of their systems by violent extremists, government will look to legislate to impose increased regulation. Social media platforms are starting to respond, but some are doing so more effectively than others.

As governments increase their efforts to tackle threats in social media, antisemitism remains a core part of the wider fight against hate speech, incitement and violent extremism. It is an area where international efforts are well established, and where experts have been working on the problem since it was first raised at the Global Forum for Combating Antisemitism in 2008. Through its Working Group on Antisemitism on the Internet and in the Media, the Global Forum for Combating Antisemitism has continued to work steadily on this problem and released a major report of recommendations and a review of work to date in 2013, and an interim version of this report in 2015.

This report represents the latest research and a major step forward in efforts to tackle online antisemitism. It also lights a path for tackling other forms of online hate and incitement. Hate in social media is explored empirically, both with respect to its relative prevalence across the major platforms, and with respect to the nature of the antisemitic content. Most significantly, the rate of removal of antisemitic hate speech is reported on by social media platform and by antisemitic category over the last 10 months.

Categories of AntisemitismThe report is based on a sample totalling 2024 antisemitic items all from either Facebook, YouTube or Twitter. The categories the hate were classified into were: incitement to violence (5%), including general statements advocating death to the Jews; Holocaust denial (12%); traditional antisemitism (49%), such as conspiracy theories and racial slurs; and New Antisemitism (34%), being antisemitism related to the State of Israel as per the Working Definition of Antisemitism.

The results in this report indicate significant variation in the way antisemitism is treated both between companies and also within a single company across the four categories of antisemitism. Positive responses by the platforms remain far lower than a concerned public or the governments who represent them would expect.

The best initial removal rates occur on Facebook for Holocaust denial where 46% is removed within 3 months. The best overall result is for incitement on Facebook with only 25% of the content remaining online. The worst case was YouTube New Antisemitism where after 10 months 96% of the New Antisemitism on YouTube remained online. This reflected an overall problem on YouTube with 91% of the classic antisemitism, 90% of the Holocaust denial, and 70% of the incitement found on YouTube remaining after 10 months. Twitter is removing content on an ongoing basis but at a slow rate.

Takedowns of Holocaust denial, incitement, new antisemitism










On Twitter, classic antisemitism is the most likely to be removed (25% removed) and incitement is the least likely to be removed (14% removed). Changes to policies to move away from US legal standard which require a specific and immediate threat, and towards a wider definition covering advocacy or support for violence, do not appear to have had an impact on this data. In contrast the high response rate for classic antisemitism seems to reflect Twitters focus on racial slurs.

The German Government's moves, forcing the companies to apply domestic legal definitions of hate, and not those developed by the companies, is one way to close the gap between public expectations and current response rates. Another approach would be for the companies to actively work with civil society and governments to lift the internal standards close to public expectations. This applies not only to antisemitism, but to hate speech, incitement, and violent extremist content more generally. We hope this report sheds light on the areas where improvement is most urgently needed, and that it will encourage a closing of the gap between public expectations on how social media companies should respond to antisemitism and the reality of what is currently occurring.


















ANTISEMITISM: FROM ITS ORIGINS TO THE PRESENT

Join 50 leading scholars in exploring antisemitism, from its roots to its contemporary forms.

Yad Vashem - Future Learn


In this course, 50 leading scholars from all over the world will explore questions and issues relating to antisemitism including: what is antisemitism? How has it changed throughout history? Why can it be found among so many diverse cultures, and even among opposing ideologies? What happened to antisemitism after the Holocaust? How is antisemitism expressed today, and what are the main spheres in which it can be found?

We will examine different periods and societies, exploring the development of antisemitism as well as its changing nature over time, place and culture.


WHAT TOPICS WILL YOU COVER



WHEN WOULD YOU LIKE TO START?


WHAT WILL YOU ACHIEVE?

By the end of the course, you'll be able to...


This course, designed by Yad Vashem - The World Holocaust Remembrance Center, is for anyone with an interest in history, in social dynamics and human nature, and in the phenomenon of antisemitism.


WHO WILL YOU LEARN WITH?

Yossi Kugler

Yossi Kugler completed his graduate studies in History. He is a project manager, content developer and educator at the E-Learning Department at Yad Vashem's International School for Holocaust Studies


Dafna Dolinko

Dafna Dolinko completed her graduate studies in Jewish History. She is a content developer and educator at the E-Learning Department at Yad Vashem's International School for Holocaust Studies


Dmitry Kolotilenko

Dmitry Kolotilenko completed his graduate studies in History. He is a content developer and educator at the E-Learning Department at Yad Vashem's International School for Holocaust Studies


WHO DEVELOPED THE COURSE?

As the Jewish people’s living memorial to the Holocaust, Yad Vashem safeguards the memory of the past and imparts its meaning for future generations.


JOIN THIS COURSE



WANT TO KNOW MORE? CHECK OUR FAQS


Do you know someone who’d love this course? Tell them about it...

  
Or can use the hashtag #FLantisemitism to talk about this course on social media.


BRITS MAKE 170,000 ANTISEMITIC GOOGLE SEARCHES A YEAR
Jeremy Corbyn's meeting with Jewish leaders last year caused an 80 percent spike in searches, says CST. One in 10 of searches is for violent terms.
Jewish News,  Jue Millis, January 13, 2019


About one in 10 of the more than 170,000 antisemitic Google searches made in Britain every year include violent phrases such as “kill Jews”, the Community Security Trust (CST) has revealed.

The CST study – Hidden Hate: What Google Searches Tell Us About Antisemitism Today – released on Friday, revealed that while most of the searches are for jokes mocking Jewish people, the most common negative stereotypes claim Jews are “evil” and “racist”.

There was a rise of almost 80 percent in antisemitic searches in April, after Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn held talks with Jewish communal leaders.

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The findings cover a 14-year period starting in 2004 and are based on analysis of Google data, as well as material from the archive of the far-right website Stormfront, one of the oldest and largest neo-Nazi websites.

The study, commissioned jointly by the CST and the Antisemitism Policy Trust, set out the most common abusive searches, where they are most popular and at what time of the day, and how trends have changed over time.

As well as 17,000 of the searches having violent connotations, the CST report also found that they tended to spike between 2am and 3am, and that Wales had the highest proportion of searches with the lowest in Scotland.

It also found that someone searching for jokes about Jews is 100 times more likely to search for jokes about black people, using the N-word, and that there was little difference between Labour- and Conservative-voting areas.

There was also a sharp rise in antisemitic searches immediately after Israel’s Netta won last year’s Eurovision Song Contest.

Netta Barzilai won this year’s Eurovision for Israel

The research also pointed to an enduring fascination with conspiracy theories about the role of the Rothschild banking family in “running the world”.

The report acknowledged “it is impossible to know for sure that any given search is made by a person with antisemitic attitudes”. However, it said people tended to be far more open when they search for something online, revealing prejudices, hatreds and interests they might otherwise have kept hidden.

Report author Seth Stephens-Davidowitz said: “We have found that searches looking for information on the Holocaust being a hoax rise about 30 percent every year on Holocaust Memorial Day.

“We learned that Jewish women in public life or positions of power are the subject of more antisemitism searches than Jewish men in similar positions.

Dave Rich

“We found evidence of the rise in popularity of antisemitic conspiracy theories … and we found that sometimes heightened media focus on Jews or Israel, even if it is positive, can still lead to an increase in online searches for antisemitic content.”

CST head of policy Dr Dave Rich said: “Search engines and internet companies have a responsibility to ensure that people asking these questions are directed away from hateful content and towards material that might challenge their prejudices.”

Google said it “does its best to prevent inappropriate predictions”. A spokesperson added: “We partner with organisations in the UK who work to tackle hate speech, including CST and Stop Hate UK.

“Autocomplete helps you get to the information you are looking for as quickly as possible. For certain issues, including hateful predictions against groups and individuals based on religion, we have developed policies to exclude such terms.”

Karen Pollock, Chief Executive of the Holocaust Educational Trust reflected on the news, saying: “This research just goes to prove what many of us have been aware of for years. Online platforms have become places where one can easily access hate.

“The report finds that Google searches for “Holocaust hoax” are roughly 30 per cent above average on Holocaust Memorial Day (27th January). Surely there is a way for internet search engines to prevent hate being so readily available, at the click of a button.”


HIDDEN HATE: WHAT GOOGLE SEARCHES TELL US ABOUT ANTISEMITISM TODAY
CST  Protecting Our Jewish Community, 11 Jan 2019 by CST


What can the internet tell us about antisemitism in the United Kingdom? Today , CST and the Antisemitism Policy Trust publish a new report, called Hidden Hate: What Google searches tell us about antisemitism today, that uses Google search data from 2004 to 2018 to show what people in the UK are searching for in relation to Jews, Zionism and the Holocaust, and what this tells us about antisemitic attitudes in Britain today. The report is authored by Seth Stephens-Davidowitz, who wrote the acclaimed 2017 book Everybody Lies: What the Internet Can Tell Us About Who We Really Are. The report also uses data from the complete archive of the far right website Stormfront, which has been used as a discussion board by neo-Nazis across the world for over 20 years.


































It has been shown that people are remarkably honest when they search for information online. Their Google searches and queries reveal interests, prejudices and hatreds that they might keep hidden from friends, family members, neighbours, surveys and even from themselves. They have been shown to share their health secrets, sexual preferences, and hostility towards other groups. This ground-breaking report uses this data for the first time to reveal the antisemitism in Google searches in the UK.



















Hidden Hate shows:


















A COPY OF HIDDEN HATE CAN BE DOWNLOADED.

ANTISEMITISM:
FROM ITS ORIGINS
TO THE PRESENT

BRITS MAKE
170,000 ANTISEMITIC
GOOGLE SEARCHES A YEAR

Measuring the Hate:
The State of Antisemitism
in Social Media


Antisemitism: From Its Origins to the
Present

Brits make
170,000
Antisemitic Google Searches a Year