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Foreign Empires that have Occupied Israel


What is the Jewish Diaspora?






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Genes and the Jewish Diaspora


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The Diaspora is
‘The Jews or Jewish communities scattered “in exile” outside Judea/Palestine
or present-day Israel.  

Go to Countries
and then click on the country of interest to find out what happened to them.

(See also
What is a Diaspora)

Survival of Hebrew

Survival of Hebrew

Why Teach the Holocaust
Which  Happened About
80 Years Ago?

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The Diaspora, ( Greek: Dispersion) Hebrew Galut (Exile),  started with the dispersion of Jews among the Gentiles after the Babylonian Exile and then to the Jews or Jewish communities scattered “in exile” outside Palestine or present-day Israel. Although the term refers to the physical dispersal of Jews throughout the world, it also carries religious, philosophical, political, and eschatological connotations, as the Jews perceive a special relationship between the land of Israel and themselves. Interpretations of this relationship range from the messianic hope of traditional Judaism for the eventual “ingathering of the exiles” to the view of Reform Judaism that the dispersal of the Jews was providentially arranged by God to foster pure monotheism throughout the world.

King Solomon created the wealthiest and most powerful central government the Hebrews would ever see, but at a high cost. Land was given away to pay for his extravagances and people were sent into forced labor. When he died, between 926 and 922 BCE, the ten northern tribes refused to submit to his son, Rehoboam, and revolted.

From this point on, there would be two kingdoms of Hebrews:  Israel in the north and Judah in the south. They remained as separate states for over two hundred years.

In 722 BCE, the Assyrians conquered Israel. So conquered territories remained pacified  many were forced to move to other parts of their empire. Assyrians were then sent to the conquered territory.  This scattering of the ten tribes throughout their empire is thought of as a proto-Diaspora ("diaspora"="scattering"). They then virtually disappeared from history and are called "the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel."  

Around the 1st century CE the estimated 5,000,000 Jews living outside Judea looked to Judea as the centre of their religious and cultural life.outnumbered the Judean Jews even before the destruction of Jerusalem in CE 70. Thereafter, the chief centres of Judaism shifted from country to country (e.g., Babylonia, Persia, Spain, France, Germany, Poland, Russia and the United States – diasporas). Jewish communities gradually adopted distinctive languages, rituals, and cultures. Some submerged themselves in non-Jewish environments more completely than others. While some lived in peace, others became victims of violent antisemitism.

In 63 BCE, Judea became a protectorate of Rome, and in 6 CE was organized as a Roman province. In 135 CE, Hadrian’s army defeated the Jewish armies and Jewish independence was lost. Jerusalem was turned into a pagan city called Aelia Capitolina  where Jews were forbidden to live and the country’s name was changed from Judea to Syria Palestina.

During the Middle Ages, the Jews had divided into distinct regional groups the Ashkenazi Jews who immigrated to Central and later Eastern Europe, the Sephardi Jews who settled in Iberia and later North Africa, and the Mizrahi Jews who had remained in the Babylon after the destruction of the First Temple.

Today, Jews hold widely divergent views about the role of Diaspora Jewry and the desirability and significance of maintaining a national identity. While the vast majority support the Zionist movement (the return of Jews to Israel), some extreme Orthodox Jews oppose the modern nation of Israel as a godless and secular state, defying God’s will to send his Messiah at the preordained time.

The maps on the Video/Maps page show what happened .

The reasons for the Diaspora at any time depended upon local culture
and often had the following pattern

Arrival - Laws against the Jews -
Voluntary Leaving/Expulsion - Readmission
(this pattern was frequently repeated in the same place.)

 for example from the British Library

The first significant migration of Jews to England came after the Norman Invasion in 1066. By the late 1200s, England had a small Jewish population of around 3000 people. Throughout this period, the Jews suffered from anti-Semitic prejudice, often scapegoated or wrongly accused of crimes. There were frequent riots against them, in which their property was destroyed and citizens murdered. Many Jews were employed as money lenders. The Jews took these jobs because the Christian Church traditionally ruled that usury (money lending for interest) was illegal for Christians, but not for Jews. The Jews were taxed heavily, so the wealth earned in the usury trade benefited the Crown directly. By the late 1200s, a series of laws had been created restricting the rights of the Jewish people. For instance, they were not allowed to own land, and after death their money went, not to their children, but directly to the Crown. In 1275 King Edward I passed a law forbidding the Jews from usury. They were entitled to earn a living as tradesmen or farmers, but were not allowed to be part of guilds or to own farmland. The Jews became poor and the king could no longer collect taxes from them. Many hundreds were arrested, hanged or imprisoned. And then finally in 1290, they were banished from England altogether. Jews were not allowed to return to England until 1656.

Other examples are Germany, the Inquisition, and leaving Russia at the end of the 19th century for Palestine.  The Video page graphic lists expulsions to the end of the 19th century.

Research has been and is being undertaken on Genes and the Diaspora.


The first exile was the Assyrian exile, the expulsion from the Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) begun by Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria in 733 BCE.  The story of the Diaspora is the Jewish story outside Israel and Judea from then till today.
Jews were largely concentrated in North America (44%)
and the Middle East-North Africa region (41%) in 2010.
Most of the remainder was in Europe (10%)
and the Latin America-Caribbean region (3%) (Pew Research Center).


The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tfutza, תְּפוּצָה) or exile (Hebrew: Galut, גָּלוּת; Yiddish: Golus) refers to the dispersion of Israelites or Jews out of their ancestral homeland (the Land of Israel) and their subsequent settlement in other parts of the globe.

In terms of the Hebrew Bible, the term "Exile" denotes the fate of the Israelites who were taken into exile from the Kingdom of Israel during the 8th century BCE, and the Judahites from the Kingdom of Judah who were taken into exile during the 6th century BCE. While in exile, the Judahites became known as "Jews" (יְהוּדִים, or Yehudim), "Mordecai the Jew" from the Book of Esther being the first biblical mention of the term.

The first exile was the Assyrian exile, the expulsion from the Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) begun by Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria in 733 BCE. This process was completed by Sargon II with the destruction of the kingdom in 722 BCE, concluding a three-year siege of Samaria begun by Shalmaneser V. The next experience of exile was the Babylonian captivity, in which portions of the population of the Kingdom of Judah were deported in 597 BCE and again in 586 BCE by the Neo-Babylonian Empire under the rule of Nebuchadnezzar II.

A Jewish diaspora existed for several centuries before the fall of the Second Temple, and their dwelling in other countries for the most part was not a result of compulsory dislocation. Before the middle of the first century CE, in addition to Judea, Syria and Babylonia, large Jewish communities existed in the Roman provinces of Syria Palaestina, Egypt, Crete and Cyrenaica, and in Rome itself; after the Siege of Jerusalem in 63 BCE, when the Hasmonean kingdom became a protectorate of Rome, emigration intensified. In 6 CE the region was organized as the Roman province of Judea. The Judean population revolted against the Roman Empire in 66 CE in the First Jewish–Roman War which culminated in the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE. During the siege, the Romans destroyed the Second Temple and most of Jerusalem. This watershed moment, the elimination of the symbolic centre of Judaism and Jewish identity constrained many Jews to reformulate a new self-definition and adjust their existence to the prospect of an indefinite period of displacement.

In 132 CE, Bar Kokhba led a rebellion against Hadrian, a revolt connected with the renaming of Jerusalem as Aelia Capitolina. After four years of devastating warfare, the uprising was suppressed, and Jews were forbidden access to Jerusalem.

During the Middle Ages, due to increasing migration and resettlement, Jews divided into distinct regional groups which today are generally addressed according to two primary geographical groupings: the Ashkenazi of Northern and Eastern Europe, and the Sephardic Jews of Iberia (Spain and Portugal), North Africa and the Middle East. These groups have parallel histories sharing many cultural similarities as well as a series of massacres, persecutions and expulsions, such as the expulsion from Spain in 1492, the expulsion from England in 1290, and the expulsion from Arab countries in 1948–1973. Although the two branches comprise many unique ethno-cultural practices and have links to their local host populations (such as Central Europeans for the Ashkenazim and Hispanics and Arabs for the Sephardim), their shared religion and ancestry, as well as their continuous communication and population transfers, has been responsible for a unified sense of cultural and religious Jewish identity between Sephardim and Ashkenazim from the late Roman period to the present.


Each definition
is valid, yet each is elusive, none quite cap­turing the Jewish spirit. Until the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, it would clearly have been impossible to call them a nation; they were the Diaspora: the dispersed ones from the land to which they are now returning.
(From front cover of ‘The Diaspora’  - Keller)

So, who is a Jew?

The Jews are unique in world history.  They became stateless following their defeat in 135CE by the Romans (see Jewish-Roman wars). In 1948 - almost 2,000 years later - the United Nations created Israel allowing them to return home.

This declaration was met by the invasion of neighbouring  states intent on its abolition. Go to Israel to see how it was created and survived.  
How, with no state, did the Hebrew language survive for 2,000 years
and then become the language of Israel ?

This return happened after the Holocaust when 6,000,000 Jews where murdered by the Nazis.  The arguments by the vocal group who deny this happened in whole or in part are described in Denial.

Misleading information about the Jews that has circulated during the past 2.000 years and still circulates today is summarised in antisemitism

So, what is a Diaspora, when was the first Diaspora and how did the Jews stay together for so long and then create the only democracy in the Middle East?

Go to

The Forgotten Refugees.  After 2,000 years the Jews fled/were exiled from the Arab countries.  About 600,000 went to Israel, the rest went elsewhere.

Countries to see the effect of the Diaspora on each country

Marranos  How they lived as ‘secret Jews’

Belmonte  1917, the story of the Portuguese Jews who thought they were the only remaining Jews in the world

Stories to understand the effect of the Diaspora on individuals

Genetic Studies of Jewish Origins

Jewish Diaspora Links

The first Jewish expulsion was in 733BCE
from Samaria (Israel/Judah) by King Tiglath-Pileser III

The above table shows the Expulsion of Jews between 1290 CE and 1597 CE
and when they were repealed.

See also Timeline by Country


(Hebrew History Federation)

The dispersions of the Jews from their homelands proved to be both a bane and a boon. Again and again Jews were ripped from their roots. Again and again Jews were obliged to make a new life in strange surroundings. Nonetheless, some factors worked in their favor. Most importantly, the Jews were a literate people who shared a common language with their relatives and compatriots in other lands. The Jews have not only been the "People of the Book" but the people who, in the main, could read a book. Literacy leads not only to learning but to the transfer of information from persons unknown, even from persons long dead. Importantly, it leads to the ability to communicate over time and space.

The Jews enjoyed a commercial advantage by virtue of familial ties and ability to communicate. Having a common interest, they established commercial liaisons of mutual benefit, and were, often uniquely, able to issue letters of credit that were certain to be honored months later from distant lands.

Throughout the ages the participation of the Jews in the evolution of commerce was far out of proportion to their numbers. Jewish communities were rarely deployed into primitive hinterlands, but in ports that gave them access to their peers abroad, or along trade routes, or in centers at the forefront of the technological revolution. Subsequent displacements widened the web of their commercial contacts. Jews became integral to the international trade of the countries into which they settled or were hurled. Inter-national intercourse became part and parcel of Jewish life.

Erudite Jewish traveler-traders maintained an interchange of Judaic law and cultural precepts between the dispersed communities. Jewish identity was preserved through the links provided by world-girdling sages.


‘The Jews or Jewish communities scattered “in exile” outside Judea/Palestine or present-day Israel.  

Go to Countries and then click on the country of interest
to you to find out what happened to them there.

(See also What is a Diaspora)


Hence from 1881, this vicious, mounting and cumulatively over­whelming pressure on Russian Jewry produced the inevitable consequence- a panic flight of Jews from Russia westwards. Thus 1881 was the most important year in Jewish history since 1648, indeed since the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492. Its consequences were so wide and fundamental, that it must be judged a key year in world history too. The first big rush to get out came in 1881—2. Thereafter Jews left at an average of 50,000—60,000 a year. With the Moscow expulsions, 110,000 Russian Jews left in 1891 and 137,000 in 1892.

In the pogrom year 1905—6, over 200,000 Jews left. The exodus was by no means confined to Russia. Between 1881 and 1914 more than 350,000 Jews left Austrian Galicia. More Jews emigrated from Lithuania, where they were also under pressure. The net result was not to reduce the Jewish population of eastern Europe. In 1914 there were still five and a half million Jews in Russia and two and a half million in the Austrian empire. What the movement did was to take the natural population increase, some two and a half million, and transfer it elsewhere.

Therein lay momentous effects, both for the Jews and for the world.  We must now examine them in turn.

Of these emigrants, more than two million went to the United States alone, and the most obvious and visible consequence, therefore, was the creation of a mass American urban Jewry. This was a completely new phenomenon, which in time changed the whole balance of Jewish power and influence in the world, and it came quite suddenly. The original Jewish settlement in America was small and slow to expand. As late as 1820 there were only about 4,000 Jews in the United States, and only seven of the original thirteen states recognized them politically.  The slow growth of the community is hard to understand,

Paul Johnson, A History of the Jews, p365

are the Jews?
A race?
A religion?
A culture?
A way of life ?

on a
Bane and a Boon

Panic Flight