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SUMMARY

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There are nearly five and a half billion people on this earth, of whom only about fifteen million—less than one third of one percent—are classified as Jews. Statistically, they should hardly be heard of, like the Ainu tucked away in a comer of: Asia, bystanders of history. But the Jews are heard of totally out of proportion to their small numbers. The Jewish contribution to the world’s list of great names in religion, science, literature, music, finance, and philosophy is staggering.

During their 4,000 year existence empires such as the Greek, Roman and Ottoman have appeared and vanished. To each the Jews made substantial contributions and by each they suffered problems ranging from additional taxation, expulsion and pogroms. Concepts such as prayer, redemption, universal education and charity were understood and used hundreds of years before the rest of the world was ready to accept them.

The Jewish people have long maintained both physical and religious ties with the land of Israel. Although they had first arrived centuries earlier, and the Jewish Bible claims that a Jewish monarchy existed starting in the 10th century BCE. The first appearance of the name "Israel" is in the secular (non-Biblical) historic record is the Egyptian Merneptah Stele, circa 1200 BCE. During the Biblical period, two kingdoms occupied the highland zone, the Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) in the north, and the Kingdom of Judah in the south. The Kingdom of Israel was conquered by the Neo-Assyrian Empire (circa 722 BCE), and the runt Kingdom of Judah by the Neo-Babylonian Empire (586 BCE). The defeat of the Babylonian Empire by the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great (538 BCE), saw some returneing to Jerusalem and the Second Temple built.

In 332 BCE the Macedonian Greeks under Alexander the Great conquered Israel, starting a long religious struggle that split the Jewish population into traditional (orthodox) and Hellenized components.

In 165 BCE after the religion-driven Maccabean Revolt, the independent orthodox Hasmonean Kingdom was established. In 64 BCE the Romans conquered Israel, turning it into a Roman province. Although coming under the sway of various empires and home to a variety of ethnicities, the area of ancient Israel was predominantly Jewish until the Jewish–Roman wars of 66-136 CE, during which the Romans expelled most of the Jews from the area and replaced it with the Roman province of Palestine so adding to the Jewish Diaspora where the Jews formed minorities. The area became increasingly Christian after the 3rd century, though the percentages of Christians and Jews are unknown, the former probably predominating in urban areas and the latter in rural areas[1]. Jewish settlements declined from over 160 to 50 by the time of the Muslim conquest. Michael Avi-Yonah calculated that Jews constituted 10–15% of Palestine's population on the Persian invasion of 614,[2] while Moshe Gil claims that Jews constituted the majority of the population until the 7th century Muslim conquest (638 CE).[3]

In 1099 the Crusaders conquered Jerusalem and nearby coastal areas, losing and recapturing it for almost 200 years until their last stand in Acre in 1291. In 1517 the Ottoman Empire conquered it, ruling it until the British conquered it in 1917.  The British Mandate ended in 1948, when the Jewish State of Israel was created.

JEWISH TIMELINES AND SURVIVAL

THE

INCREDIBLE

STORY OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE




JEWISH AND CHRISTIAN DATES

(from ‘The Amazing Adventures of the Jewish People’ by Max I Dimont)


Jews began dating events not with a king or a divinity but with the creation of man.
In Judaism mankind, not a god or an individual, is the center of destiny.

For practical purposes the Jews have adopted a common calendar with Western civilization. The Christian designation of BC (‘Before Christ’) is replaced with BCE. (Before the Common Era) and AD (Anno Domini ‘the year of our Lord’) by CE. (Common Era).
So, for instance, instead of saying that the Modern state of Israel was founded in 1948 AD., or that David was crowned king of ancient Israel in 1000 BC,
the Jews say the former was in 1948 CE and the latter in 1000 BCE.

Year 1 in Jewish chronology is the creation of Adam and Eve which, according to tradition, took place 3,760 years before the birth of Jesus,
the event used by Western civilization as Year 1.

To find the Jewish date for an event occurring either before or after the birth of Jesus, just subtract or add the year in which the event took place from or to 3,760. Thus 1000 BC would be the Jewish year of 2760 (3,760 minus 1,000), and 1000 AD would be the Jewish year of 4760 (3,760 plus 1,000)
.

Dates given in Jewish history may vary slightly as scholars disagree on the exact dates they occurred. These variations in no way affect the validity of the event itself.



EMPIRES THAT RULED IN ISRAEL
From Science.co.il

587 BCE BABYLONIAN Destruction of the first Temple.

538-333 BCE PERSIAN Return of the exiled Jews from Babylon and construction of the second Temple (520-515 BCE).

333-63 BCE HELLENISTIC Conquest of the region by the army of Alexander the Great (333 BCE). The Greeks generally allowed the Jews to run their state. But, during the rule of the king Antiochus IV, the Temple was desecrated. This brought about the revolt of the Maccabees, who established an independent rule. The related events are celebrated during the Hanukah holiday.

63 BCE-313 CE ROMAN The Roman army led by Titus conquered Jerusalem and destroyed the Second Temple at 70 CE. Jewish people were then exiled and dispersed to the Diaspora. In 132, Bar Kokhba organized a revolt against Roman rule, but was killed in a battle in Bethar in Judean Hills. Subsequently the Romans decimated the Jewish community, renamed Jerusalem as Aelia Capitolina and Judea as Palaestina to obliterate Jewish identification with the Land of Israel (the word Palestine, and the Arabic word Filastin originate from this Latin name). (Note: They were copying the procedure they used to obliterate Carthage from the map)

The remaining Jewish community moved to northern towns in the Galilee. Around 200 CE the Sanhedrin was moved to Tsippori (Zippori, Sepphoris). The Head of Sanhedrin, Rabbi Yehuda HaNassi (Judah the Prince), compiled the Jewish oral law, Mishna.

313-636 BYZANTINE The juridical standing of the Jews of the Byzantine Empire was unique during the entire history of the Empire; they did not belong to the Christian Eastern Orthodox faith, which was the state religion, nor were they usually grouped with heretics and pagans but were placed in a legal position between the two worlds. The place varied with time, and depended largely on three factors: the theological desire of the state to maintain the Jews as a living testament to the victory of Christianity, the desire of the state to strengthen its control, and the ability of centralized rule from Constantinople to enforce its legislation.

636-1099 ARAB Dome of the Rock was built by Caliph Abd el-Malik on the grounds of the destroyed Jewish Temple.

1099-1291 CRUSADERS The crusaders came from Europe to capture the Holy Land following an appeal by Pope Urban II, and massacred the non-Christian population. Later Jewish community in Jerusalem expanded by immigration of Jews from Europe.

1291-1516 MAMLUKS (lit slaves) a military class who ruled Egypt from 1250 to 1517 and Syria (including Palestine) from 1260 to 1516. Under the Mamluk sultans local Jews often suffered though sometimes the Sultan and his representative were restraining influences. 1516-1918 OTTOMAN During the reign of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566) the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem were rebuilt. Population of the Jewish community in Jerusalem increased.

1917-1948 BRITISH Great Britain recognized the rights of the Jewish people to establish a "national home in Palestine". Yet they greatly curtailed entry of Jewish refugees into Israel even after World War II. They split their Palestine mandate into an Arab state which has become the modern day Jordan, and Israel.


(See also History of the Jews and Judaism in the Land of Israel )

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Summary

Jewish and Christian Dates

Available Timelines

Empires
That Have
Ruled in Israel



MANY JEWISH TIMESCALES ARE AVAILABLE.
Which is of most use depends on what you are looking for.  
The list below is to help you in your search


DIAGRAMS/CHARTS
Timeline of Jewish History and Heritage
   Odeya

The Unbroken Chain of Jewish Tradition - A Visual Overview of the History of the Jewish People     This has four timescales.  Go to The Unbroken Chain of Jewish Tradition for information on each timeline.

Click here for more charts


GENERAL
 A List of Jewish Expulsions for 2,000 years   
Zionism-Israel

Holocaust Denial Key Dates    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum


Antisemitism

Anti-Semitism and Persecution of Jews  3rd cent BCE-2005    zionism-israel.com
Jewish Persecution - A History of Anti-Semitism 250CE to 1945 - - Simple to Remember

Timeline of antisemitism in the 21st century    Wikipedia

HOLOCAUST

Holocaust Timeline 1933-1945    The History Place
The Holocaust Year by Year  BBC

The Holocaust and World War 2: Key Dates    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

Timeline of the Holocaust    Wikipedia

Holocaust Timeline   History on the Net

BBC iWonder    BBC iWonder
Echoes and Reflecttions  Timeline of the Holocaust


Holocaust Denial Timeline  United States Holocaust Memorial Museum - Holocaust Encyclopedia

Holocaust Denial and Distortion from Iranian Government and Official Media Sources, 1998-2016    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
Iranian Voices Today     United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

Go to Denial


BIBLE

Chronology of the Bible Wikipedia

Bible Chronology Timeline Bible Chronology Timeline


OVERVIEW

Timeline for the History of Judaism - Jewish Virtual Library

Timelines in Jewish History 1000 BCE - 1925 CE     jewishtimeline.org

Historyworld      Historyworld Interactive

Timeline of Jewish History    Wikipedia

History of Judaism – BBC

The Unbroken Chain of Jewish Tradition    Simple to Remember

A Visual Overview of the History of the Jewish People - Simple to Remember

Timeline of Intercommunal Violence in Mandatory Palestine 1897-1948    Wikipedia

Timeline of the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict 1948-2014   Wikipedia

Wave of Violence in Israeli-Palestinian Conflict 2015-2016  Wikipedia

Timeline of Israeli History 1882 1897 and 1948-2017   Wikipedia

History of Israel: Key Events 1948-2008  BBC

Israel Profile - A Chronology of Key Events 1917-2018   BBC

History of Israel | A Chronological Presentation 1000BCE-1995CE  History of Israel

Zionism and the History of Israel    1843-2005 and 1800BCE-2005CE zionism-israel.com
Ancient Israel to Rise of Zionism 1800BCE-1897CE   zionism-israel.com


ISRAEL
Israel Chronology 1993 - 2008    Zionism-Israel

Tmeline of the Israel War of Independence 1947-1949   Zionism-Israel

Israeli-Arab 6 Day war (1967)    1953-1972   Zionism-Israel

Israel   History  


PALESTINE

Palestinian territories - Timeline  1917-2018   BBC


BRITAIN
A Chronology of the Jews in Britain
The Jewish Historical Society


BOOKS
Rose Book of Bible Charts, Maps, and Time Lines    Amazon

A Historical Atlas of the Jewish People: From the Time of the Patriarchs to the Present Eli Barnavi

The Timechart History of Jewish Civilization with a 34-page booklet and a 12-foot illustrated      accordion fold pull-out section  Chartwell Books