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SUMMARY

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There are nearly five and a half billion people on this earth, of whom only about fifteen million—less than one third of one percent—are classified as Jews. Statistically, they should hardly be heard of, like the Ainu tucked away in a comer of: Asia, bystanders of history. But the Jews are heard of totally out of proportion to their small numbers. The Jewish contribution to the world’s list of great names in religion, science, literature, music, finance, and philosophy is staggering.

During their 4,000 year existence empires such as the Greek, Roman and Ottoman have appeared and vanished. To each the Jews made substantial contributions and by each they suffered problems ranging from additional taxation, expulsion and pogroms. Concepts such as prayer, redemption, universal education and charity were understood and used hundreds of years before the rest of the world was ready to accept them.

The Jewish people have long maintained both physical and religious ties with the land of Israel. Although they had first arrived centuries earlier, and the Jewish Bible claims that a Jewish monarchy existed starting in the 10th century BCE, the first appearance of the name "Israel" in the secular (non-Biblical) historic record is the Egyptian Merneptah Stele, circa 1200 BCE. During the Biblical period, two kingdoms occupied the highland zone, the Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) in the north, and the Kingdom of Judah in the south. The Kingdom of Israel was conquered by the Neo-Assyrian Empire (circa 722 BCE), and the runt Kingdom of Judah by the Neo-Babylonian Empire (586 BCE). Upon the defeat of the Babylonian Empire by the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great (538 BCE), the Jewish elite returned to Jerusalem, and the Second Temple was built.

In 332 BCE the Macedonian Greeks under Alexander the Great conquered Israel, starting a long religious struggle that split the Jewish population into traditional (orthodox) and Hellenized components.

In 165 BCE after the religion-driven Maccabean Revolt, the independent orthodox Hasmonean Kingdom was established. In 64 BCE the Romans conquered Israel, turning it into a Roman province. Although coming under the sway of various empires and home to a variety of ethnicities, the area of ancient Israel was predominantly Jewish until the Jewish–Roman wars of 66-136 CE, during which the Romans expelled most of the Jews from the area and replaced it with the Roman province of Palestine, beginning the Jewish Diaspora. After this time, Jews became a minority in most regions, except Galilee, and the area became increasingly Christian after the 3rd century, though the percentages of Christians and Jews are unknown, the former perhaps coming to predominate in urban areas, the latter remaining in rural areas[1] Jewish settlements declined from over 160 to 50 by the time of the Muslim conquest. Michael Avi-Yonah calculated that Jews constituted 10–15% of Palestine's population by the time of the Persian invasion of 614,[2] while Moshe Gil claims that Jews constituted the majority of the population until the 7th century Muslim conquest (638 CE).[3]

In 1099 the Crusaders conquered Jerusalem and nearby coastal areas, losing and recapturing it for almost 200 years until their final ouster from Acre in 1291. In 1517 the Ottoman Empire conquered it, ruling it until the British conquered it in 1917, and ruled it under the British Mandate until 1948, when the Jewish State of Israel was proclaimed, which was made possible by the Zionist movement and its promotion of mass Jewish immigration.

JEWISH TIMELINE AND SURVIVAL

Israel

THE

INCREDIBLE

STORY OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE




STORY










There are nearly five and a half billion people on this earth, of whom about fifteen million—less than one third of one percent—are classified as Jews. Statistically, they should hardly be heard of, like the Ainu tucked away in a comer of: Asia, bystanders of history. But the Jews are heard of totally out of proportion to their small numbers. The Jewish contribution to the world’s list of great names in religion, science, literature, music, finance, and philosophy is staggering.

During their 4,000 year existence empires such as the Greek, Roman and Ottoman have appeared and vanished. To each the Jews made substantial contributions and by each they suffered problems ranging from additional taxation, expulsion and pogroms. Concepts such as prayer, redemption, universal education and charity were understood and used hundreds of years before the rest of the world was ready to accept them.

Between 2000 and 1200 BCE Abraham introduced monotheism to the world. Following the Age of Patriarchs. Joseph invited the Jews to settle in Egypt where a new pharaoh enslaved them. They left under the leadership of Moses (the Exodus) and received the Torah (Law) at Sinai. Joshua conquered Canaan which led to two centuries of rule by the Judges. This was succeeded by the period of Kings - Saul, David, and Solomon. After Solomon’s death about 931 BCE his kingdom was broken up into two states. Israel. In the north with ten tribes and Judea in the south with two tribes.

In 721 BCE Israel became an Assyrian province and its population deported. They vanished and became the ‘lost tribes’. Jerusalem remained the capital of the kingdom of Judea in the south, which continued until 587/586 BCE, when the Babylonians conquered it destroyed Jerusalem and with it the First Temple. Later, the Persian kings permitted captive Jews to return from Babylonia and rebuild their temple (the Second Temple) and the walls of Jerusalem. They are the ancestors of modern Jewry

Judea lost its independence to the Romans in the 1st century BCE, by becoming first a tributary kingdom and then a province of the Roman Empire.

The first Jewish–Roman War also called the First Jewish Revolt or the Great Jewish Revolt, lasted from 66 CE insurrection to the fall of Masada in 73 CE. The commemoration of the victorious Roman army is still seen by the Titus Arch in Rome.

The Kitos War (115–117 CE) — known as the "Rebellion of the Exile" and also called the Second Jewish-Roman War was fought by exiled Jews against the Romans

The Bar Kochba revolt (132–135 CE) — is called the Second Jewish-Roman War (when the Kitos War is not counted in the sequence as it started outside Judea), or the Third Jewish-Roman War when the Kitos War is counted. Following the defeat of Bar Kochba Hadrian saw Judaism as the cause of continuous rebellions. He prohibited the Torah law and the Hebrew calendar and executed Judaic scholars. The sacred scroll was ceremonially burned on the Temple Mount. Hadrian hoped that renaming would result in their being forgotten so overcoming fears that Jewish success would follow their future rebellions. Just as happened with Carthage, writing Judaea and Jerusalem off the map would make them disappear. Judea was renamed Syria Palæstina and made a Roman province by merging with Roman Syria. The name Palæstina was based on the Latinised form of the Philistines who had been an ancient enemy.. Jerusalem was to be inhabited by his legionnaires and renamed ‘Aelia Capitolina’ Latin in full: Colonia Ælia Capitolina.

The Jews were forbidden from entering Jerusalem, except on the day of Tisha B'Av. (Today, while it commemorates the destruction of the Temple, it also commemorates other Jewish tragedies, many of which occurred on this day, such as the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492 and from England in 1290).

Josephus, a contemporary, reported that

"Jerusalem ... was so thoroughly razed to the ground by those that demolished it to its foundations, that nothing was left that could ever persuade visitors that it had once been a place of habitation’.

Most remaining Jews from the Bar Kochba rebellion went to other countries where they sometimes lived in peace, sometimes suffered pogroms, lived in ghettos, had work restrictions, extra taxation and expulsion and acted as an obvious target to blame for local problems.

While Hadrian's death in 138 CE brought a significant relief to the surviving Jewish communities Judaism had had a critical change. They no longer had a ‘home country’. The Jews were dispersed throughout world (diaspora) with a portable religion that was centered around local synagogues.

During this time they created a body of law and made major contributions to finance, trading, literature, science and social institutions.

The Spanish Jewish community grew to form the largest concentration of Jews. Those who would not convert to Roman Catholicism were expelled in 1492 and settled initially in other countries including Portugal, Turkey, North Africa and South America. They became known as Sefardim, from Sefarad meaning Spain. Those who settled in Eastern Europe became known as Askenazim, from Ashkenaz the Hebrew for Germany. Many Jews converted to stay in Spain, and later Portugal, and while appearing to be Catholics many were ‘secret Jews’ and became known as ‘Marranos’ (see also ‘Ashkenazic and Sephardi Jewry’ )

In 1948 the Jews returned home so restoring Israel. Though being dispersed and with no country of their own they had created a body of law and made major contributions to finance, trading, literature, science and social institutions.

(Names sometimes breed confusion. the name Judah (written in Assyrian cuneiform as Yaudaya or KUR.ia-ú-da-a-a). Judea was sometimes used as the name for the entire region, including parts beyond the river Jordan. In 200 CE Sextus Julius Africanus, cited by Eusebius (Church History 1.7.14), described "Nazara" (Nazareth) as a village in Judea).

POPULATION OF ISRAEL (1)

The demographic features of Israel are monitored by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. The State of Israel has a population of approximately 8,585,000 inhabitants as of September 2016. 74.8% percent of them are Jews (about 6,419,000 individuals), 20.8% are Arab (about 1,786,000 individuals), while the remaining 4.4% (about 380,000 individuals) are defined as "others" (including family members of Jewish immigrants who are not registered at the Ministry of Interior as Jews, non-Arab Christians, non-Arab Muslims and residents who do not have an ethnic or religious classification).

Israel's annual population growth rate stood at 2.0% in 2015, more than three times faster than the OECD average of around 0.6%. With an average of 3 children per woman, Israel also has the highest fertility rate in the OECD by a considerable margin, and much higher than the OECD average of 1.7

Generally, population trends in Israel reflect distinct patterns of three sub-groups: Non-Haredi Jews (around 63.3% of the population), Haredi (strictly Orthodox or ultra-OrthodoxJews) (11.7%), and Arabs (20.7%). Over the past decade, the Muslim annual population growth has fallen significantly from around 3% to less than 2.2% by 2013, while the overall Jewish growth rate rose from around 1.4% to 1.7%, primarily due to the expanding Haredi sector.

See Also  Can’t the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Be Resolved?  by Joseph Chamie • March 11, 2015 • WORLDVIEWS

After the failure of United States mediated peace talks, the Gaza-Israel war and the recent tensions in Jerusalem, the prospects for a near-term settlement to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict have reached an all-time low. Given those conditions, it is useful and perhaps productive to revisit and reconsider the fundamental solutions for resolving the conflict. Numbers, too, help to understand the situations in the region.

This looks at the  alternative One-state solution, Two-state solution.Three-state solution, No Palestinian-state solution, No Israel-state solution, Prospects

THE JEWISH ENIGMA  (2)

Jewish Enigma makes the following points between 1300 and 1800

The Wikipedia statistics show the massive movement to the Americas, the increase in Asia due to the immigration into Palestine and then Israel after it was created in 1948. In Africa the fall was largely due to the movement from South Africa.

The Jewish Enigma' poses the following question (see bottom of p45 on)

It is perhaps worth reviewing, some of the factors that have already been mentioned to see whether any clues suggest themselves. Needless to say, no definitive answers can be given to such a profound and complex question within the context of such a brief historical review

Until the emancipation, the Jewish community was recognized as a separate legal entity by the state’s ruler, and thereby had the authority to compel its members to obey. Yet the mechanisms of enforcement, the harshest being the Herem, the Ban of Excommunication, were very rarely used. The main means of coercion were public opinion and communal pressure. As long as the King acknowledged the community’s right to self-government, its members complied with its rulings as if there were a local government. The rabbis, being both the instructors and the judges of the community, exerted a very strong influence. Yet in most communities the public and the lay leadership - usually the well-off members - were able to restrain the more extremist rabbis and prevent them from unpopular Halakhic decisions.

The factors mentioned so far have mostly been positive. Many would claim, however, that it was the negative factor of anti-Semitism which, more than any other was responsible for the survival of the Jewish people. In other words, continuing anti-Jewish pressure has kept the Jews together. Jean-Paul Sartre claimed that the Jews maintained their affiliation to their religious communities and Jewish consciousness only because they were always reminded of it by an anti-Semitic world. There have been, however, periods and places in which the Jews not been subjected to oppression or attack. Yet during such periods the Jews not assimilate. but created new centres for a creative and rich Jewish life.

Vital though each of the above factors may have been for the process of survival, there still had to be an underlying determination to resist either blandishments or threats to convert on the one hand, and oppression and anti-Semitism on the other. The basic conviction shared by the majority of Jews is the need for the continued separate and distinct existence of Judaism and the Jewish people - at no matter what cost to the individual.

Historians, rabbis and thinkers have provided a number of answers to the question: the feeling of being a ‘chosen people", and the messianic hope, the religion and the purity of Jewish monotheism, the uniqueness of the Jewish spirit, ­an inborn and unique talent for survival, an ability for adaptation and for rebuilding national and religious centres beyond the original homeland, ihe ever strong attachment to that original homeland, and other similar factors. Ir has not been our intention here to authenticate any of these explanatory theses, but rather to revue the varied historical conditions of Jewish survival. The survival itself is a fact. The central role of religion until emancipation is also indisputable. But in the post emancipation period, many Jewish movements and communities were non-religious altogether. Is there a valid explanation of Jewish survival or does it remain the Jewish enigma?

ISRAEL - PALESTINIAN POPULATION GROWTH AND ITS IMPACT ON PEACE’  (3)

However, comparatively little attention — and, hence, insufficient understanding — is given to a critical aspect of the decades-old conflict: population growth. Differential rates of population growth are redefining the relative demographic standing of Arab-Israelis, Jewish-Israelis and Palestinians in the region, pointing to a challenging demographic future for the Jewish-Israeli majority and affecting key negotiating concerns, positions and strategies, including establishing borders, the status of settlements and the return of Palestinian refugees.

The tract of land at the center of the conflict — the former British Mandate of Palestine — is relatively small. The combined surface area of Israel and the State of Palestine (the Gaza Strip plus the West Bank) is about the size of Haiti and can be fit into Texas about 25 times. The relative proportions of this combined territory are 79 percent Israel and 21 percent Palestine territory (20 percent West Bank and 1 percent Gaza Strip).

The total number of people residing in this tract is also not large. Fewer than 13 million — numerically equivalent to 4 percent of the US population — live there. As is widely acknowledged, the central defining characteristic of this population is its religious affiliation. A brief look at the past provides insight into the demographic status and growth of the major religious groups in this troubled land.

Population projections for the next 20 years indicate continued demographic growth for both Israel and the State of Palestine. The Palestinian population is expected to grow more rapidly than the Israeli population because of higher fertility rates. Whereas the Israeli population is expected to increase by about 40 percent by 2035, the Palestinian population is projected to increase by nearly 60 percent (Table 1).

Population projections also show that while the Jewish proportion in Israel will decline slightly over the next two decades, it will continue to be the dominant majority of the Israeli population, 73 percent in 2035. This is not the case, however, when one considers the entire future population residing in the former British Palestine. Demographic projections indicate that less than half of the future population residing there would be Jewish, 48 percent in 2025 and 46 percent by 2035. But if only the West Bank population were to be incorporated into Israel, the Jewish proportion would be a declining majority, 57 percent in 2014 to 53 percent by 2035.declining majority, 57 percent in 2014 to 53 percent by 2035.

PROPOSALS FOR ALTERNATIVE STATES  (4)

MAJOR PROPOSALS

1 Andinia Plan
(Spanish: plan Andinia) refers to both former ideas (dating to the 19th century) to establish a Jewish state in parts of Argentina
2 Ararat city
In 1820, in a precursor to modern Zionism, Mordecai Manuel Noah tried to found a Jewish homeland at Grand Island in the Niagara River, to be called "Ararat," after Mount Ararat,

3 British Uganda Program
The British Uganda Program was a plan to give a portion of British East Africa to the Jewish people as a homeland.

The offer was first made by British Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain to Theodore Herzl's Zionist group in 1903. He offered 5,000 square miles (13,000 km2) of the Mau Plateau in what is today Kenya. The offer was a response to pogroms against the Jews in Russia, and it was hoped the area could be a refuge from persecution for the Jewish people.

4 Jewish Autonomous Oblast in USSR
On March 28, 1928, the Presidium of the General Executive Committee of the USSR passed the decree "On the attaching for Komzet of free territory near the Amur River in the Far East for settlement of the working Jews." The decree meant that there was "a possibility of establishment of a Jewish administrative territorial unit on the territory of the called region".

5 Fugu plan
Refers to memoranda written in the 1930s Imperial Japan proposing settling Jewish refugees escaping Nazi-occupied Europe in Japanese territories

6 Madagascar plan
A suggested policy of the Third Reich government of Nazi Germany to forcibly relocate the Jewish population of Europe to the island of Madagascar.

7 British Guiana
In March 1940, the issue of an alternative Jewish Homeland was raised and British Guiana (now Guyana) was discussed in this context. But the British Government decided that "the problem is at present too problematical to admit of the adoption of a definite policy and must be left for the decision of some future Government in years to come".[16]

OTHER ATTEMPTS OF JEWISH SELF-GOVERNANCE THROUGHOUT HISTORY
Ancient times

Adiabene
An ancient kingdom in Mesopotamia with its capital at Arbil was ruled by Jewish converts during the first century.

Anilai and Asinai
Babylonian-Jewish chieftains.

Mahoza –
During the beginning of sixth century Mar-Zutra II formed a politically independent state where he ruled from Mahoza for about 7 years.

Nehardea –
The seat of the exilarch in Babylonia.

Khaybar –
A self-governed oasis in Arabia.

Himyar –
There were many Jewish kings at this region of Yemen since 390 CE when a local chieftain named Tub'a Abu Kariba As'ad formed an Empire.

Kingdom of Semien –
A Jewish kingdom in Ethiopia

Touat –
A self-governed oasis in Algeria

Middle ages to 19th century

The Resh Galuta or Exilarch
Exercised considerable authority over the Jewish community in the Persian Empire and later the Caliphate

Khazar kingdom
During the Middle Ages Khazaria's official religion was Judaism. Jewish scholars and refugees were actively invited to settle within Khazar territory, particularly in Tmutarakan and the Crimea.

Makhir of Narbonne
And possibly his descendents were acknowledged by the Carolingian emperors as ethnarchs of western Jewry, with their seat at Narbonne

Council of Four Lands –
The central body of Jewish authority in Poland from 1580 to 1764. Seventy delegates from local kehillot met to discuss taxation and other issues important to the Jewish community. The "four lands" were Greater Poland, Little Poland, Ruthenia and Volhynia.

Principality of Malabar
From the eighth century to 1524 the Cochin Jews had an ethnarch ruling over them.

The Mountain Jews of remote parts of Daghestan
Were self-ruling for much of the medieval and early modern period.

Jarawa Berber tribe on the Maghreb
In the seventh century, believed to be Jews, and resisted arabicization under the leadership of Queen Kahina.

Jodensavanne:
An attempt to establish a safe haven for Jews in Surinam

Banou Israel:
Tribe of Jews of Bilad el-Sudan in Fati Lake Mali

Modern times

Location of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in the Russian Federation.

In the early 20th century Cyprus and El Arish on the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt and its environs were proposed as a site for Jewish settlement by Herzl.

A Jewish "republic" under Arab or Transjordanian suzerainty
This was put forward by the Hashemite kings of Hejaz and emirs of Transjordan; the closest these proposals came to fruition was the Faisal-Weizmann Agreement, which proved to be impossible to implement subsequent to the division of the Levant into League of Nations Mandates.

Eastern Arabia
A Russian Jewish doctor residing in France named Dr M L Rothstein proposed the establishment of a Jewish state in Al-Hasa modern day Saudi Arabia in September 1917.

Jewish Autonomous Oblast
Was a region created by the Soviet Union in the Russian Far East. It has been in existence from 1934 to the present.

Salonika in the Ottoman Empire
Was populated mainly by Sephardim with Judeo-Spanish as the main language. After its incorporation to the Kingdom of Greece, it remained very Jewish until the arrival of Greek refugees from Anatolia in the 1920s.

Albania
In 1935, British Zionist journalist Leo Elton traveled to Albania, apparently at his own initiative, to see if it would be possible to establish a Jewish national entity there. The Kimberley Plan was a failed plan by the Freeland League, led by Isaac Nachman Steinberg, to resettle Jewish refugees from Europe in the Kimberley region in Australia before and during the Holocaust.

In 1941 from Lord Moyne's
East Prussia after Germany was defeated and the area's German inhabitants were expelled.

Kiryas Joel, New York
A town composed largely of Yiddish-speaking Hasidic Jews.

Qırmızı Qəsəbə (formerly in Russian: Krasnaya Sloboda, English: Red Town)
The town is the primary settlement of Azerbaijan's population of Mountain Jews, who make up the population of approximately 4,000.

Sitka, Alaska –
A plan for Jews to settle the Sitka area in Alaska

Vietnam
Vietnamese government officials in 2005, told Israeli officials of a plan discussed between Ho Chi Minh and Moshe Dayan to invite Jews to live in the country. No documentation of the offer and discussion has yet been made available

PROPOSALS FOR A SECOND JEWISH STATE[

Following the creation of the State of Israel, the goal of establishing a Jewish state was achieved. However, since then, there have been some proposals for a second Jewish state, in addition to Israel:

ANTI-ZIONIST PROPOSALS FOR ALTERNATIVE JEWISH HOMELANDS

As a prevailing strain of anti-Zionism puts forth an opposition to Israel's existence in the Middle East, a smaller wing of anti-Zionism focuses upon the circumstances of the resulting region-wide conflict which followed Israel's Jewish settlement and 1948 declaration of independence; this ideology proposes the hypothetical resettlement of the entire Jewish Israeli population in another isolated region of the world outside the Middle East.

Click here to see a list of other attempts at Jewish self-governance throughout history

REFERENCES

(1)  Wikipedia

(2)  'The Jewish Enigma’ by Robin Spiro - Editor David Englander, The Open University 1992)

(3)  Joseph Chamie in ‘Pass Blue, Covering the UN’ on February 2, 2014

(4)   Wikipedia

LINKS

History of the Jews and Judaism in the Land of Israel    Wikipedia



JEWISH AND CHRISTIAN DATES
(from ‘The Amazing Adventures of the Jewish People by Max I Dimont)


Jews begin dating events not with a king or a divinity but with the creation of man.
In Judaism mankind, not a god or an individual, is the center of destiny.

For practical purposes the Jews have adopted a common calendar with Western civilization. The Christian designation of BC (‘Before Christ’) is replaced with BCE. (Before the Common Era) and AD (Anno Domini ‘the year of our Lord’) by CE. (Common Era).
So, for instance, instead of saying that the Modern state of Israel was founded in 1948 AD., or that David was crowned king of ancient Israel in 1000 BC,
the Jews say the former was in 1948 CE and the latter in 1000 BCE.

Year 1 in Jewish chronology is the creation of Adam and Eve which, according to tradition, took place 3,760 years before the birth of Jesus,
the event used by Western civilization as Year 1.

To find the Jewish date for an event occurring either before or after the birth of Jesus, just subtract or add the year in which the event took place from or to 3,760. Thus 1000 BC would be the Jewish year of 2760 (3,760 minus 1,000), and 1000 AD would be the Jewish year of 4760 (3,760 plus 1,000)
.

Dates given in Jewish history may vary slightly as scholars disagree on the exact dates they occurred. These variations in no way affect the validity of the event itself.



EMPIRES THAT RULED IN ISRAEL
From Science.co.il

587 BCE BABYLONIAN Destruction of the first Temple.

538-333 BCE PERSIAN Return of the exiled Jews from Babylon and construction of the second Temple (520-515 BCE).

333-63 BCE HELLENISTIC Conquest of the region by the army of Alexander the Great (333 BCE). The Greeks generally allowed the Jews to run their state. But, during the rule of the king Antiochus IV, the Temple was desecrated. This brought about the revolt of the Maccabees, who established an independent rule. The related events are celebrated during the Hanukah holiday.

63 BCE-313 CE ROMAN The Roman army led by Titus conquered Jerusalem and destroyed the Second Temple at 70 CE. Jewish people were then exiled and dispersed to the Diaspora. In 132, Bar Kokhba organized a revolt against Roman rule, but was killed in a battle in Bethar in Judean Hills. Subsequently the Romans decimated the Jewish community, renamed Jerusalem as Aelia Capitolina and Judea as Palaestina to obliterate Jewish identification with the Land of Israel (the word Palestine, and the Arabic word Filastin originate from this Latin name). (Note: They were copying the procedure they used to obliterate Carthage from the map)

The remaining Jewish community moved to northern towns in the Galilee. Around 200 CE the Sanhedrin was moved to Tsippori (Zippori, Sepphoris). The Head of Sanhedrin, Rabbi Yehuda HaNassi (Judah the Prince), compiled the Jewish oral law, Mishna.

313-636 BYZANTINE The juridical standing of the Jews of the Byzantine Empire was unique during the entire history of the Empire; they did not belong to the Christian Eastern Orthodox faith, which was the state religion, nor were they usually grouped with heretics and pagans but were placed in a legal position between the two worlds. The place varied with time, and depended largely on three factors: the theological desire of the state to maintain the Jews as a living testament to the victory of Christianity, the desire of the state to strengthen its control, and the ability of centralized rule from Constantinople to enforce its legislation.

636-1099 ARAB Dome of the Rock was built by Caliph Abd el-Malik on the grounds of the destroyed Jewish Temple.

1099-1291 CRUSADERS The crusaders came from Europe to capture the Holy Land following an appeal by Pope Urban II, and massacred the non-Christian population. Later Jewish community in Jerusalem expanded by immigration of Jews from Europe.

1291-1516 MAMLUKS (lit slaves) a military class who ruled Egypt from 1250 to 1517 and Syria (including Palestine) from 1260 to 1516. Under the Mamluk sultans local Jews often suffered though sometimes the Sultan and his representative were restraining influences. 1516-1918 OTTOMAN During the reign of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566) the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem were rebuilt. Population of the Jewish community in Jerusalem increased.

1917-1948 BRITISH Great Britain recognized the rights of the Jewish people to establish a "national home in Palestine". Yet they greatly curtailed entry of Jewish refugees into Israel even after World War II. They split Palestine mandate into an Arab state which has become the modern day Jordan, and Israel.


(See also History of the Jews and Judaism in the Land of Israel

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MANY JEWISH TIMESCALES ARE AVAILABLE.
Which is of most use to you depends on what you are looking for.  
The list below is to help you in your search


 A List of Jewish Expulsions for 2,000 years

Chronology: Anti-Semitism and Persecution of Jews From Ancient times Zionism-Israel

Timeline of Jewish History and Heritage    Odeya

Chronology of the Bible Wikipedia

Bible Chronology Timeline Bible Chronology Timeline

The Timechart History of Jewish Civilization with a 34-page booklet and a 12-foot illustrated      accordion fold pull-out section

Timeline for the History of Judaism - Jewish Virtual Library

Timelines in Jewish History 1000 BCE - 1925 CE     jewishtimeline.org

Historyworld Historyworld Interactive

Timeline of Jewish History Wikipedia

History of Judaism – BBC

Timeline of Intercommunal Violence in Mandatory Palestine Wikipedia

Timeline of the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict Wikipedia

Timeline of Israeli History Wikipedia

History of Israel: Key Events BBC

History of Israel | A Chronological Presentation

TimeLine (Chronology) of Zionism and the History of Israel zioinism-israel.com

The Unbroken Chain of Jewish Tradition Simple to Remember

A Visual Overview of the History of the Jewish People - Simple to Remember

Jewish Persecution - A History of Anti-Semitism 250CE to 1945 - - Simple to Remember

Holocaust Timeline 1933-1945    Historyplace

Holocaust Denial Timeline  Holocaust Encyclopedia

A Chronology of the Jews in Britain The Jewish Historical Society
 

4000 Years of Jewish History
Survival

Understanding the
middle  ages

STORIES

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History and stories of the Diaspora around the world