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UNESCO in their online booklet

WHY TEACH ABOUT THE HOLOCAUST?

HELPS US ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS

What is Genocide?
Why the Holocaust was a defining historical moment
 Is Genocide inevitable?
Do States and citizens have responsibilities?
Does silence contribute to oppression?
What are the roots of prejudice and oppression?
Can modern technology be abused?

And so helps you learn about yourself
and of the world around you

HOW THE HOLOCAUST IS SEEN

(1)  The Holocaust by Martin Gilbert, 1989  

A poignant introduction by the author (official biographer of Winston Churchill) is followed by his instructive analysis of anti-Semitism in Europe, from Martin Luther's venomous fulminations against Jews to the motivating power of anti-Semitism in the National Socialist movement. Hitler's "final solution" began formally within hours of the German invasion of Russia, a campaign that, as Gilbert shows, provided an opportunity for genocide hitherto lacking. With a relentless accumulation of detail and eyewitness accounts, he writes of the systematic efficiency of the Nazi attempt to destroy European Jewry and the widespread disbelief that such could be happening. Though the figure of Adolf Hitler remains in the background, such executives as Himmler, Eichmann and Mengele are very much in evidence throughout the gripping narrative (there is new material on the latter's labors at Auschwitz). An element in the historical tragedy that Gilbert stresses is the deliberate destruction of childrenone of Mengele's principal interestswhich the author calls "the new barbarism." The narrative reaches its dreadful climax with the convergence on the death camps of the Allied and Soviet armies, a time when "rescue and slaughter marched hand in hand." A particularly disturbing section deals with outbreaks of anti-Semitism after the German surrender. On July 4, 1946, for instance more than a year after V-E Day 42 Jews were massacred by Poles in the town of Kielce. Gilbert brings within the pages of this volume all the major substantiated evidence of Jewish resistance throughout the wa, plus many examples of Gentiles risking their lives to protect Hitler's prey.

(2) (2)  Dwight D. Eisenhower,(Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe WW2, President of USA 1953-61)  

I saw my first horror camp [on 12 April 1945]. It was near the town of Gotha. I have never been able to describe my emotional reactions when I first came face to face with indisputable evidence of Nazi brutality and ruthless disregard of every shred of decency. Up to that time I had known about it only generally or through secondary sources. I am certain however, that I have never at any time experienced an equal sense of shock.

I visited every nook and cranny of the camp because I felt it my duty to be in a position from then on to testify at first hand about these things in case there ever grew up at home the belief or assumption that "the stories of Nazi brutality were just propaganda." Some members of the visiting party were unable to go through with the ordeal. I not only did so but as soon as I returned to Patton's headquarters that evening I sent communications to both Washington and London, urging the two governments to send instantly to Germany a random group of newspaper editors and representative groups from the national legislatures. I felt that the evidence should be immediately placed before the American and the British publics in a fashion that would leave no room for cynical doubt.

(3)  UCL Centre for Holocaust Education  By Paul Salmons March 2014  

Not long ago, and not far from where we live, ordinary people across Europe became complicit in the murder of their neighbours. What will young people’s education amount to if they do not confront this appalling truth ?

For the Holocaust was a catastrophe not only for its millions of victims but also for our view of ourselves, of who we are, our faith in human nature, and a belief in western progress and ‘civilization’. If we are not prepared to consider what went wrong in modern society that allowed state persecution of political opponents; mass murder of the disabled; European genocide of the Roma (Gypsies); and ultimately led to an attempt to murder every last Jewish man, woman and child, then how can we consider ourselves to be educated people at all?

“YOU CAN’T INTERPRET THE WORLD WITHOUT UNDERSTANDING THE HOLOCAUST”


YAD VASHEM and MUSEUM OF THE BIBLE
STRENGTHEN THEIR
HOLOCAUST COMMEMORATION AND EDUCATION EFFORTS




















(4)  FORMAL COOPERATION AGREEMENT BETWEEN ‘THE MUSEUM OF THE BIBLE’, WASHINGTON DC AND ‘YAD VASHEM’ JERUSALEM

Yad Vashem and Museum of the Bible have signed a formal cooperation agreement to strengthen ties between Jewish and Christian communities and support Yad Vashem’s Holocaust commemoration and education efforts across the world.

The agreement, called the “Declaration of Cooperation,” was signed in Washington, D.C. at Yad Vashem’s 2016 Christian Leadership Conference.

With the agreement, Yad Vashem will be better able to meet the rising demand among Christian individuals, youth members, and pastors in recent years for authoritative sources on the history and facts of the Shoah. In addition to continuing to support seminars at Yad Vashem, the Museum of the Bible will also help Yad Vashem develop ties with Christian ministries across the world, recruit candidates to Christian Leadership Seminars, organize Yad Vashem events, bolster Yad Vashem’s Holocaust commemoration efforts with the general public, and spearhead public relations efforts in areas related to Christian Holocaust commemoration.

Museum of the Bible has deep ties to Israel, the land of the Bible and the People of the Book, including partnerships with other Israel-based organizations, notably the Israel Antiquities Authority. When Museum of the Bible opens next year, the Israel Antiquities Authority will display rare archaeological objects from Israel in a dedicated 4,000 square foot gallery through this partnership. Museum of the Bible is also dedicated to supporting the excavation of archaeological sites in Israel beginning an archeological dig at Tel-Shimron, one of the largest and most historically significant sites in Israel.

(5)  THE HOLOCAUST

The Holocaust (from the Greek ὁλόκαυστος holókaustos: hólos, "whole" and kaustós, "burnt"), also known as the Shoah (Hebrew: השואה, HaShoah, "the catastrophe"), was a genocide in which approximately six million Jews were killed by Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime and its collaborators. Some historians use a definition of the Holocaust that includes the additional five million non-Jewish victims of Nazi mass murders, bringing the total to approximately eleven million. Killings took place throughout Nazi Germany and German-occupied territories.

From 1941 to 1945, Jews were targeted and methodically murdered in a genocide, one of the largest in history, and part of a broader aggregate of acts of oppression and killings of various ethnic and political groups in Europe by the Nazis. Every arm of Germany's bureaucracy was involved in the logistics and the carrying out of the genocide, turning the Third Reich into "a genocidal state". Non-Jewish victims of broader Nazi crimes include Romanis, Christian Poles, communists, homosexuals, Soviet POWs, and the mentally and physically disabled. In total, approximately 11 million people were killed, including approximately one million Jewish children. Of the nine million Jews who had resided in Europe before the Holocaust, approximately two-thirds were killed. A network of about 42,500 facilities in Germany and German-occupied territories were used to concentrate, confine, and kill Jews and other victims. Between 100,000 and 500,000 people were direct participants in the planning and execution of the Holocaust.

The persecution and genocide were carried out in stages. Initially the German government passed laws to exclude Jews from civil society, most prominently the Nuremberg Laws of 1935. A network of concentration camps was established starting in 1933 and ghettos were established following the outbreak of World War II in 1939. In 1941, as Germany conquered new territory in eastern Europe, specialized paramilitary units called Einsatzgruppen were used to murder around two million Jews and "partisans", often in mass shootings. By the end of 1942, victims were being regularly transported by freight train to specially built extermination camps where, if they survived the journey (see Transport), most were systematically killed in gas chambers. The campaign of murder continued until the end of World War II in Europe in April–May 1945.

Jewish armed resistance to the Nazis occurred throughout the Holocaust (see Resistance). One notable example was the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943, when thousands of poorly armed Jewish fighters held the Waffen-SS at bay for four weeks. An estimated 20,000 to 30,000 Jewish partisans actively fought the Nazis and their collaborators in Eastern Europe. French Jews were also highly active in the French Resistance, which conducted a guerilla campaign against the Nazis and Vichy French authorities. In total, there were over a hundred armed Jewish uprisings.



































(6)  GENOCIDE  -  THE NAZI JEWISH HOLOCAUST, 1938-1945, 6,000,000 DEATHS
(The following is only a brief summary)


ADOLF HITLER TO HIS ARMY COMMANDERS, AUGUST 22, 1939:

"Thus for the time being I have sent to the East only my 'Death's Head Units' with the orders to kill without pity or mercy all men, women, and children of Polish race or language.
Only in such a way will we win the vital space that we need.
Who still talks nowadays about the Armenians?"


The term ‘Genocide’ was coined by Polish writer and attorney, Raphael Lemkin, in 1941 by combining the Greek word 'genos' (race) with the Latin word 'cide' (killing).

Genocide as defined by the United Nations in 1948 means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, including: (a) killing members of the group (b) causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group (c) deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part (d) imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group (e) forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

For the Nazis it began with a simple boycott of Jewish shops and ended in the gas chambers at Auschwitz as Adolf Hitler and his Nazi followers attempted to exterminate the entire Jewish population of Europe.

In January 1933, after a bitter ten-year political struggle, Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany. During his rise to power, Hitler had repeatedly blamed the Jews for Germany's defeat in World War I and subsequent economic hardships. Hitler also put forward racial theories asserting that Germans with fair skin, blond hair and blue eyes were the supreme form of human, or master race. The Jews, according to Hitler, were the racial opposite, and were actively engaged in an international conspiracy to keep this master race from assuming its rightful position as rulers of the world.

Jews at this time composed only about one percent of Germany's population of 55 million persons. German Jews were mostly cosmopolitan in nature and proudly considered themselves to be Germans by nationality and Jews only by religion. They had lived in Germany for centuries, fought bravely for the Fatherland in its wars and prospered in numerous professions.

But they were gradually shut out of German society by the Nazis through a never-ending series of laws and decrees, culminating in the Nuremberg Laws of 1935 which deprived them of their German citizenship and forbade intermarriage with non-Jews. They were removed from schools, banned from the professions, excluded from military service, and were even forbidden to share a park bench with a non-Jew.

Back in Germany, years of pent-up hatred toward the Jews was finally let loose on the night that marks the actual beginning of the Holocaust. The Night of Broken Glass (Kristallnacht) occurred on November 9/10 after 17-year-old Herschel Grynszpan shot and killed Ernst vom Rath, a German embassy official in Paris, in retaliation for the harsh treatment his Jewish parents had received from Nazis.

Spurred on by Joseph Goebbels, Nazis used the death of vom Rath as an excuse to conduct the first State-run pogrom against Jews. Ninety Jews were killed, 500 synagogues were burned and most Jewish shops had their windows smashed. The first mass arrest of Jews also occurred as over 25,000 men were hauled off to concentration camps. As a kind of cynical joke, the Nazis then fined the Jews 1 Billion Reichsmarks for the destruction which the Nazis themselves had caused during Kristallnacht.

Many German and Austrian Jews now attempted to flee Hitler's Reich. However, most Western countries maintained strict immigration quotas and showed little interest in receiving large numbers of Jewish refugees. This was exemplified by the plight of the St. Louis, a ship crowded with 930 Jews that was turned away by Cuba, the United States and other countries and returned back to Europe, soon to be under Hitler's control.

On the eve of World War II, the Führer (supreme leader) publicly threatened the Jews of Europe during a speech in Berlin:

"In the course of my life I have very often been a prophet, and have usually been ridiculed for it. During the time of my struggle for power it was in the first instance only the Jewish race that received my prophecies with laughter when I said that I would one day take over the leadership of the State, and with it that of the whole nation, and that I would then among other things settle the Jewish problem. Their laughter was uproarious, but I think that for some time now they have been laughing on the other side of their face. Today I will once more be a prophet: if the international Jewish financiers in and outside Europe should succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world war, then the result will not be the Bolshevizing of the earth, and thus the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe!"

Hitler intended to blame the Jews for the new world war he was soon to provoke. That war began in September 1939 as German troops stormed into Poland, a country that was home to over three million Jews. After Poland's quick defeat, Polish Jews were rounded up and forced into newly established ghettos at Lodz, Krakow, and Warsaw, to await future plans. Inside these overcrowded walled-in ghettos, tens of thousands died a slow death from hunger and disease amid squalid living conditions. The ghettos soon came under the jurisdiction of Heinrich Himmler, leader of the Nazi SS, Hitler's most trusted and loyal organization, composed of fanatical young men considered racially pure according to Nazi standards.


On April 30, 1945, surrounded by the Soviet Army in Berlin, Adolf Hitler committed suicide and his Reich soon collapsed. By now, most of Europe's Jews had been killed. Four million had been gassed in the death camps while another two million had been shot dead or died in the ghettos. The victorious Allies; Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union, then began the daunting task of sorting through the carnage to determine exactly who was responsible.
Seven months later, the Nuremberg War Crime Trials began,
with 22 surviving top Nazis charged with crimes against humanity.

During the trial, a now-repentant Hans Frank,
the former Nazi Governor of Poland declared:

"A thousand years will pass and the guilt of Germany will not be erased.*

(7)  THE WORLD AND THE HOLOCAUST

From The Nazi rise to power was perceived by the world, especially the West, with concern. However, gradually the new regime attained a certain degree of legitimacy. This legitimacy was strengthened by a world-wide participation in the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, despite attempts to have them cancelled. Numerous reports on violations of the rights of German Jewry and then of Austrian Jewry, had reached the Free World throughout the 1930’s. For example: segregation of the Jews and dispossession of their property. This, however, elicited only weak protests. Most countries even closed their doors to Jews who sought to leave Germany.

Throughout the war, military matters were the top priority for countries at war with the Nazis. As a result, information concerning the persecution and murder of the Jews was pushed aside. Reports on what was happening in the ghettos and death camps, sometimes endangering the life of the person conveying the information, was at times regarded with disbelief. The Holocaust never became a first priority on any agenda. It was generally believed that the best way of stopping the atrocities of the Nazi regime was to win the war. Furthermore, influential international figures and bodies, such as the Catholic Church, generally refrained from engaging in any unequivocal protest measures against Nazi Germany. Even when the magnitude of the atrocities at Auschwitz became clear, the Allies did not bomb the camp. There were, nevertheless, cases in which diplomatic intervention by other countries - especially the United States - prevented the murder of many Jews. This occurred, for example, in Romania and Hungary.

(8)  THE HOLOCAUST’S IMPACT IN POSTWAR SOCIETIES
Perhaps the Holocaust’s main theological effect has been that the Roman Catholic Church radically changed its position toward Jews.
The author is emeritus chairman of the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. He was given the Lifetime Achievement Award by the Journal for the Study of Antisemitism, and the International Leadership Award by the Simon Wiesenthal Center.


A woman walks through the Holocaust memorial during heavy snowfall in Berlin.. (photo credit:REUTERS)


The Holocaust has had major impacts in many areas in post-war Western societies.

The upcoming International Holocaust Remembrance Day is a worthy occasion to assess this subject.



One important reason why the magnitude of this post-Holocaust impact is largely hidden is that it is overshadowed by the Holocaust itself.

When seen against this extremely violent and tragic background, the multidisciplinary post-Holocaust impact, with its difficult-to-summarize multiple facets, does not draw much attention.

However, the subject does warrant consideration and focus.

Yet there is research being done in many isolated areas related to post-Holocaust studies. A huge number of individual books and studies concerning the influence of the Holocaust on postwar societies have been published. There are also many other aspects of post-Holocaust impact. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a direct result of the Holocaust. So is the United Nations Genocide Convention.

Perhaps the Holocaust’s main theological effect has been that the Roman Catholic Church radically changed its position toward Jews. This found its expression in a declaration by pope Paul VI in 1965 – Nostra Aetate, which translates to “in our time.” Various popes have spoken very differently about Jews in the past 50 years than their pre-war predecessors did. Similarly, a number of Protestant churches have apologized for their attitudes toward the Jews before and during the war.

The Holocaust has raised many ethical issues. A prime one is the ethics of obedience. Many Nazi criminals claimed that all they did was follow orders. This has raised the fundamental questions of what makes people willing to execute criminal orders from their superiors and to what extent can this be prevented in the future.

The many traumatic experiences of Holocaust survivors have led to advances in psycho-social treatment, including for traumas not derived from the Holocaust. Epigeneticists are now studying whether Holocaust traumas sometimes are being be passed on to the next generation genetically.

There are a multitude of other subjects concerning survivors. These include their contribution to the Jewish world as well as to societies at large.

Restitution and how it was handled can be seen as a prism for the diverse attitudes of countries which were under German occupation. A study by Sidney Zabludoff shows that only 20% of assets stolen from the Jews before and during the Second World War were returned. Furthermore, there can hardly be a major restitution debate without reference to guilt. One may wonder why some nations occupied by the Germans were willing to apologize in recent decades for their wartime behavior, while others, such as France, have limited their efforts to describe their wartime past truthfully.

Alone among Western European nations the Netherlands stands out as being the one nation consistently refusing to admit any culpability.

Remembrance also has many aspects. Monuments and memorials for Jewish victims were initially mainly located in Jewish synagogues, centers or cemeteries. Only decades later did they increasingly find their place in the public domain.

Many Holocaust museums have been established.

There are also books on the design and architecture of Holocaust monuments and museums. In the Communist world, no differentiation was allowed between Jewish and non-Jewish victims.

Also related to memory are the remaining structures of the camps themselves. Archeologists have been digging at the Sobibor extermination camp and unearthed the gas chambers.

Philosophy is another discipline touched by post-Holocaust influence. Has Never Again become an empty slogan? The leading Holocaust philosopher Emil Fackenheim has said that in addition to the classic 613 commandments of Jewish law, there is a 614th – the duty to remember.

Yet, philosopher Shmuel Trigano claims that this duty to remember has become a largely distorted issue in French society. And why is it that rather than fading away, the mention of the Holocaust seems to have increased in recent years in the public debate? The distortion of the Holocaust has become a major issue in postwar society. Often the focus of debates is on Holocaust denial. Far more important is the inversion of the Holocaust – comparing Israel to the Nazi state. At least 150 million citizens of the European Union agree with the absurd claim that Israel conducts a war of extermination against the Palestinians.

Many novels have Holocaust-related plots. The best-known poem on the Holocaust is probably Paul Celan’s “The Death Fugue” with its penetrating sentence, “Death is a master from Germany.”

There is also literary analysis of Holocaust novels.

All of this is but a small selection of a field of which no overview exists. Only once a number of universities start looking systematically at post-Holocaust studies in their entirety will we acquire important additional tools to understand better some contemporary developments in an increasingly chaotic world.

REFERENCES

(1)   Publishers Weekly

(2)   Rational Wiki

(3)   UCL Centre for Holocaust Education

(4)   Jewish Philanthropy

(5)   Wikipedia  

(6)   The History Place Genocide in the 20th Century

(7)   Yad Vashem

(8)    (8)   Jerusalem Post Opinion, Bymanfred Gerstenfeld, 25 Jan 2015


WHAT WAS THE

JEWISH HOLOCAUST ?

SUMMARY

_________________________



THE HOLOCAUST was the systematic murder of six million Jews by the Nazis and their collaborators during World War II.

Europe's Jewish population in the 1930's numbered nine million. Six million of them had been murdered by the end of World War II in 1945, many of whom had been reduced to ashes in facilities built by Hitler's regime. The Nazis referred to this as ‘The Final Solution to the Jewish Problem.’

Large numbers of Gypsies, homosexuals, and other groups were murdered by the Nazis, but it was the Jewish people who were most intensively and intentionally targeted.

The Holocaust raises many perplexing questions.

Why did so many ordinary Europeans cooperate with Hitler's programme of Jewish persecution (actively or passively), and why did relatively few resist?

Was the systematic murder of Jews on an industrial scale an anomaly of history, or merely the worst manifestation of a hatred that for thousands of years has simmered and frequently boiled over?

How was it possible that a "Christian" society as highly educated and cultured as that of 1930's Germany could spawn such evil? This included doctors.

We alone, cannot provide satisfactory answers. It can and does, however, convey some idea of what happened and, importantly, it provides a human face for what has become, for many, merely a faceless statistic.                      From Shadows of Shoah,

The Holocaust (from the Greek ὁλόκαυστος holókaustos: hólos, "whole" and kaustós, "burnt"), also known as the Shoah (Hebrew: השואה, HaShoah, "the catastrophe"), was a genocide in which approximately six million Jews were killed by Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime and its collaborators. Some historians use a definition of the Holocaust that includes the additional five million non-Jewish victims of Nazi mass murders, bringing the total to approximately eleven million. Killings took place throughout Nazi Germany and German-occupied territories.

From 1941 to 1945, Jews were targeted and methodically murdered in a genocide, one of the largest in history, and part of a broader aggregate of acts of oppression and killings of various ethnic and political groups in Europe by the Nazis. Every arm of Germany's bureaucracy was involved in the logistics in carrying out of the genocide, so turning the Third Reich into "a genocidal state". Non-Jewish victims of broader Nazi crimes include Romanis, Christian Poles, communists, homosexuals, Soviet POWs, and the mentally and physically disabled. In total, approximately 11 million people were killed, including approximately one million Jewish children.
Of the nine million Jews in Europe before the Holocaust, approximately two-thirds were killed. A network of about 42,500 facilities in Germany and German-occupied territories were used to concentrate, confine, and kill Jews and other victims.
The Nazis killed approximately 6,000,000 Jews and 6,000,000 others. That is about 2,000,000 per year between 1939-1945

Between 100,000 and 500,000 people were direct participants in planning and executing the Holocaust.

HOLOCAUST VICTIMS (Wikipedia)

VICTIMS

KILLED (MILLION)

Jews

5.93

Soviet POWs

2–3

Ethnic Poles

1.8–2

Serbs

300,000–500,000

Disabled

 270,000

Romani

 90,000–220,000

Freemasons

 80,000–200,000

Slovenes

 20,000–25,000

Homosexuals

 5,000–15,000

Jehovah's Witnesses

 2,500–5,000

Spanish Republicans

7000


Though the Nazi Government of Adolf Hitler was in Germany,
most of the Jews killed in the Holocaust were not German.

COUNTRY,   APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF JEWS KILLED,

PERCENTAGE OF COUNTRY’S JEWS KILLED


(source anne frank guide)


Albania
-

Austria
50,000  36%

Belgium
25,000   60%

Belorussia
245,000  65%

Bohemia/
Moravia
80,000  89%

Bulgaria
11,400  14%

Denmark
60  1.3%

Estonia
1500  35%

Italy
7500  20%

Latvia
70,000  77%

Lithuania
220,000  94%

Luxembourg
1950  50%

The Netherlands
106,000  76%

Norway
870  55%

Poland
2,900,000  88%

Finland
7 2. 8%

France
90,000  26%

Germany
130,000  55%

Great Britain
130   -

Greece
65,000  80%

Hungary
450,000  70%

Russia
107,000  11%

Romania
270,000  33%

Slovakia
71,000  80%

Spain    -

Sweden    -

Switzerland    -

Ukraine
900,000  60%

Yugoslavia
60,000  80%


Tideway School (now Seahaven Academy), Newhaven, East Sussex BN9 9JL, England

(Jim Fanning, Assistant Headteacher)

THE

INCREDIBLE

STORY OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE



See the wonderful display that the

The Museum of the Bible,
Washington D.C.

brings to life

It will open in the fall of 2017



Yad Vashem
Jerusalem
Holocaust History Museum

Virtual Tour



I AM A  HOLOCAUST SURVIVOR WHILE NOT A HOLOCAUST SURVIVOR

I AM A SURVIVOR
BECAUSE I LIVED THROUGH THE 1940’s WHEN THE NAZIS CARRIED OUT THE HOLOCAUST

I AM NOT A HOLOCAUST SURVIVOR
BECAUSE I LIVED SOMEWHERE THAT WAS OUTSIDE THE AREA OF THE NAZIS HOLOCAUST
 -  ENGLAND

Only those who went through it, and felt it, truly knows what it means.

We CAN ONLY learn from it by

Telling you about it - History - by taking you through what happened

Providing videos, for you to visualise what happened

Hearing the stories of some who survived

Understanding the importance of Music and listening to music created
in concentration camps

The sad case of those who create, and try to spread,  a false history  
(Denial of the Holocaust)


Of the approximately 12,000,000
killed by the Nazis
and associates

6,000,000
were Jews

6,000,000
were non-Jews

AND SO THEY COMMITTED
A
MULTI- ETHNIC GROUP HOLOCAUST