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HOLOCAUST RESCUERS
FROM THE NAZIS  
SUMMARY
_________________________________


In 1953 Yad Vashem  was created by the Israel Patliament (Knesset)  to honour non-Jews who had risked their lives during the Holocaust to save Jews in countries that had been under Nazi rule or had collaborated with the German regime.

The rescue was through individuals or a group such as the Quakers or ‘diplomats who provided visas or individual(s) who gave a hiding place in their home or premises. In the latter case this often required the construction of shelters where Jews remained, sometimes for weeks, months, and even years, without seeing the light of day. In addition to endangering their own lives, the rescuers would have had to supply food, medical assistance, clothing and daily necessities. There was a constant danger of informers who were always ready to betray them. The rescuer sometimes had to find ways to move the hidden Jews to other hiding places and/or finding ways to aid the Jews by providing forged documents that enabled them to live under false identities as non-Jews. Sometimes they helped by smuggling Jews across borders.

Denmark was exceptionally remarkable during the war as its citizens collectively saved all Danish Jews. As a result, Yad Vashem declared the entire country Righteous Among the Nations.

Yad Vashem has conferred the honor of Righteous Among the Nations upon 19,141 individuals. However, the number of rescue attempts was larger than the number of those recorded. There were additional rescuers who were not given the title. Research has shown that the number of rescuers was often equal to the number of Jews rescued and some times outnumbering them. Frequently it took more than one person to help one Jew survive the war.

Despite the indifference of most Europeans and the collaboration of others individuals in every European country and from all religious backgrounds risked their lives to help Jews. Rescue efforts ranged from the isolated actions of individuals to organized networks.

Rescue presented many difficulties. The Allied prioritization of "winning the war" and the lack of access to those who needed rescue hampered major rescue operations. Individuals willing to help Jews in danger faced severe consequences if they were caught, and formidable logistics of supporting people in hiding. Finally, hostility towards Jews among non-Jewish populations, especially in eastern Europe, was a daunting obstacle to rescue.

Whether they saved a thousand people or a single life, those who rescued Jews during the Holocaust demonstrated the possibility of individual choice even in extreme circumstances. These and other acts of conscience and courage, however, saved only a tiny percentage of those targeted for destruction.







































THE HOLOCAUST RESOURCE CENTER - WHO ARE THE RIGHTEOUS AMONG THE NATIONS ?

From Yad Vashem

In 1953, the Knesset (Israel parliament) passed the Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority Law, which created Yad Vashem. Yad Vashem received the mandate to look for non-Jews who had risked their lives during the Holocaust to save Jews in countries that had been under Nazi rule or had collaborated with the German regime.

The historical account of the Holocaust would not be complete without the amazing stories of the Righteous Among the Nations. They are perhaps the sole rays of light in this dark era, the few whose consciences prevented them from being indifferent to the fate of the Jews and their brutal treatment.

The criteria for awarding this honor of Righteous Among the Nations, determined by the public committee of Yad Vashem , is as follows:

In most instances, the rescue involved providing a hiding place in the home or premises of the rescuer. Often this entailed the construction of shelters where Jews remained, sometimes for weeks, months, and even years, without seeing the light of day. In addition to endangering their own lives, the rescuers would have had to supply food, medical assistance, clothing and daily necessities. There was a constant danger of informers who were always ready to betray them. The rescuer occasionally had to find ways to move the hidden Jews to other hiding places. Others found ways to aid the Jews by providing forged documents that enabled them to live under false identities as non-Jews. In other instances ,people helped by smuggling Jews across the borders.

Assisting the Jews was not the result of rational, premeditated, long-term planning. Neither was it a conscious decision or a commitment to rescue in spite of all the dangers involved. For the most part, these were people who did not regard themselves as rescuers. They were suddenly faced with an unexpected situation that demanded an immediate solution. Among those who helped were men, women, laborers, simple farmers, intellectuals, diplomats, members of left-wing parties from before the war, and active members in national organizations. Some of these were even antisemitic. There were individuals who lived among Jews before the war and some who had hardly encountered Jews prior to their decision to render assistance. Denmark was exceptionally remarkable during the war as its citizens collectively saved all Danish Jews. As a result, Yad Vashem declared the entire country Righteous Among the Nations.

















































ABOUT STATISTICS
Yad Vashem

The question is often asked what can be learned from the numbers of Righteous and from the proportions between different nations about attitudes and the scope of rescue in the respective countries.

It needs to be noted that the numbers of Righteous recognized do not reflect the full extent of help given by non-Jews to Jews during the Holocaust; they are rather based on the material and documentation that was made available to Yad Vashem. Most Righteous were recognized following requests made by the rescued Jews. Sometimes survivors could not overcome the difficulty of grappling with the painful past and didn’t come forward; others weren’t aware of the program or couldn’t apply, especially people who lived behind the Iron Curtain during the years of Communist regime in Eastern Europe; other survivors died before they could make the request. An additional factor is that most cases that are recognized represent successful attempts; the Jews survived and came forward to tell Yad Vashem about them.

For example: Researchers estimate that 5000-7,000  Jews went underground in Berlin. They are the so-called U-Boote (submarines), who made the difficult choice to enter an illegal existence rather than be deported. Only a quarter of them – around 1200-1500 Jews – survived. It is unknown how many were killed in the bombing of Berlin, but all the others were caught and deported. For lack of information and evidence, not all the Germans who risked their lives to help these Jews were honored.

Before drawing any statistical conclusions about the proportions between different countries, one should bear in mind that although the Holocaust was a global and total attempt to annihilate the Jews all over occupied Europe, there were important differences between countries – differences in the number of Jews, the implementation of the Final Solution, the type of German or other administration, the historical backdrop, the makeup of the Jewish community, Germany’s attitude to the local population and the extent of danger to those who helped Jews, and a multitude of other factors that influenced the disposition and attitudes of local populations and the feasibility of rescue.

RESCUE

From United States Holocaust Museum

Despite the indifference of most Europeans and the collaboration of others in the murder of Jews during the Holocaust, individuals in every European country and from all religious backgrounds risked their lives to help Jews. Rescue efforts ranged from the isolated actions of individuals to organized networks both small and large.

Rescue of Jews during the Holocaust presented a host of difficulties. The Allied prioritization of "winning the war" and the lack of access to those who needed rescue hampered major rescue operations. Individuals willing to help Jews in danger faced severe consequences if they were caught, and formidable logistics of supporting people in hiding. Finally, hostility towards Jews among non-Jewish populations, especially in eastern Europe, was a daunting obstacle to rescue. Rescue took many forms.

German-occupied Denmark was the site of the most famous and complete rescue operation in Axis-controlled Europe. In late summer 1943, German occupation authorities imposed martial law on Denmark in response to increasing acts of resistance and sabotage. German Security Police officials planned to deport the Danish Jews while martial law was in place. On September 28, 1943, a German businessman warned Danish authorities of the impending operation, scheduled for the night of October 1–2, 1943. With the help of their non-Jewish neighbors and friends, virtually all the Danish Jews went into hiding. During the following days, the Danish resistance organized a rescue operation, in which Danish fishermen clandestinely ferried some 7,200 Jews (of the country's total Jewish population of 7,800) in small fishing boats, to safety in neutral Sweden.

In the so-called Generalgouvernement (German-occupied Poland), some Poles provided assistance to Jews. For instance, Zegota (code name for Rada Pomocy Zydom, the Council for Aid to Jews), a Polish underground organization that provided for the social welfare needs of Jews, began operations in September 1942. Although members of the nationalist Polish Home Army (Armia Krajowa-AK) and the communist Polish People's Army (Armia Ludowa-AL) assisted Jewish fighters by attacking German positions during the Warsaw ghetto uprising in April 1943, the Polish underground provided few weapons and only a small amount of ammunition to Jewish fighters. From the beginning of the deportation of Jews from the Warsaw ghetto to the Treblinka killing center in late July 1942 until the German occupiers leveled Warsaw in the autumn of 1944 after suppressing the Home Army uprising, as many as 20,000 Jews were living in hiding in Warsaw and its environs with the help of Polish civilians.

Rescuers came from every religious background: Protestant and Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Muslim. Some European churches, orphanages, and families provided hiding places for Jews, and in some cases, individuals aided Jews already in hiding (such as Anne Frank and her family in the Netherlands). In France, the Protestant population of the small village of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon sheltered between 3,000 and 5,000 refugees, most of them Jews. In France, Belgium, and Italy, underground networks run by Catholic clergy and lay Catholics saved thousands of Jews. Such networks were especially active both in southern France, where Jews were hidden and smuggled to safety to Switzerland and Spain, and in northern Italy, where many Jews went into hiding after Germans occupied Italy in September 1943.

A number of individuals also used their personal influence to rescue Jews. In Budapest, the capital of German-occupied Hungary, Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg (who was also an agent of the US War Refugee Board), Swiss diplomat Carl Lutz, and Italian citizen Giorgio Perlasca (posing as a Spanish diplomat), provided tens of thousands of Jews in 1944 with certification that they were under the "protection" of neutral powers. These certifications exempted the bearers from most anti-Jewish measures decreed by the Hungarian government, including deportation to the Greater German Reich. Each of these rescuers worked closely with members of the Budapest Jewish communities. For example, Perlasca, whose credentials were the most vulnerable to challenge, worked closely with Otto Komoly and the Szamosis—Laszlo and Eugenia—to obtain protective papers and shelter for scores of Jews in Budapest.

The Sudeten German industrialist Oskar Schindler took over an enamelware factory located outside the Krakow ghetto in German-occupied Poland. He later protected over a thousand Jewish workers employed there from deportation to the Auschwitz concentration camp. The deportation of more than 11,000 Jews from Bulgarian-occupied Thrace, Macedonia, and Pirot to Treblinka in March 1943 by the Bulgarian military and police authorities shocked and shamed key political, intellectual, and religious figures in Bulgaria into an open protest against any deportations from Bulgaria proper. The protest action, which included members of the government's own ruling party, induced the Bulgarian King, Boris III, to reverse the decision of his government to comply with the German request to deport the Jews of Bulgaria. As a result of Boris' decision, the Bulgarian authorities did not deport any Jews from Bulgaria proper.

Other non-Jews, such as Jan Karski, a courier for the Polish government-in-exile, based in London, to the non-communist underground movements, sought to expose Nazi plans to murder the Jews. Karski met with Jewish leaders in the Warsaw ghetto and in the Izbica transit ghetto in late summer of 1942. He transmitted their reports of mass killings in the Belzec killing center to Allied leaders, including President Franklin D. Roosevelt, with whom he met in July 1943.

Some US-based groups engaged in rescue efforts. The Quakers' American Friends Service Committee, the Unitarians, and other groups coordinated relief activities for Jewish refugees in France, Portugal, and Spain throughout the war. A variety of US-based organizations (both religious and secular, Jewish and non-Jewish) cooperated in securing entry visas into the United States and arranging placement and, in some cases, eventual repatriation for around 1,000 unaccompanied Jewish refugee children between 1934 and 1942.

Whether they saved a thousand people or a single life, those who rescued Jews during the Holocaust demonstrated the possibility of individual choice even in extreme circumstances. These and other acts of conscience and courage, however, saved only a tiny percentage of those targeted for destruction.

INDIVIDUALS AND GROUPS ASSISTING JEWS DURING THE HOLOCAUST

KINDERTRANSPORT
From Kindertransport.Info

The Israeli Holocaust museum Yad Vashem, and a British university, are to give the first recognition to British Quakers who saved thousands of Jews from the Holocaust.

The initiative comes after an eight-year campaign by 79-year-old Jewish refugee Austrian-born Peter Kurer, from Manchester, to convince Yad Vashem to recognise the historic rescue.

Quakers paid an estimated £350,000 (£17.5m at today's rates) in guarantees to the British government to accept around 6,000 Jews into the UK.  They then housed and found jobs for them, including Mr Kurer and eight of his family members evacuated from Vienna in 1938.

From Wikipedia

This is a partial list of rescuers who helped Jewish people and others to escape from the Nazi Holocaust during World War II, possibly the most well-known among whom was Oskar Schindler. The list is not exhaustive, concentrating on famous cases, or people who saved the lives of many potential victims. Since 1963, Yad Vashem, the Holocaust memorial in Israel, has recognized 24,356 people as Righteous Among the Nations, most of whom are from Poland. (as of 1 January 2013). The commission, called The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority in Israel, organized by Yad Vashem and headed by an Israeli Supreme Court justice, has been charged with the duty of awarding people who rescued Jews the honorary title of Righteous Among the Nations.

This site has these groups

Most prominent examples (by country),   Leaders and diplomats,    Religious figures (Catholic officials, Others),   Quakers,   Prominent individuals,   Villages helping Jews, Others,   See Also

From Wikipedia

A number of Arabs participated in efforts to help save Jewish residents of Arab lands from the Holocaust while fascist regimes controlled the territory. From June 1940 through May 1943, Axis powers, namely Germany and Italy, controlled large portions of North Africa. Approximately 1 percent of the Jewish residents, about 4,000 to 5,000 Jews, of that territory were murdered by these regimes during this period. The relatively small percentage of Jewish casualties, as compared to the 50 percent of European Jews who were murdered during the Holocaust, is largely due to the successful Allied North African Campaign and the repelling of the Axis powers from North Africa. No occupied country, in Africa or Europe, was free of collaboration with the genocide campaign against the Jews, but this was more common in European countries than Arab ones. The offer made to Algerians by colonial French officials to take over confiscated Jewish property found many French settlers ready to profit from the scheme, but no Arab participated and, in the capital, Algiers itself, Muslim clerics openly declared their opposition to the idea. While some Arabs collaborated with the Axis powers by working as guards in labor camps[citation needed], others risked their own lives to attempt to save Jews from persecution and genocide.

Arab rescue efforts were not limited to the Middle East – Si Kaddour Benghabrit, the rector of the Great Mosque of Paris, according to different sources, helped from 100 to 500 Jews disguise themselves as Muslims. There are examples of non-Arab Muslim populations assisting Jews to escape from the Holocaust in Europe, in Albania for example. In September 2013, Yad Vashem declared an Egyptian doctor, Mohammed Helmy, one of the Righteous Among the Nations for saving the life of Anna Gutman (née Boros), putting himself at personal risk for three years, and for helping her mother Julie, her grandmother Cecilie Rudnik, and her stepfather Georg Wehr, to survive the holocaust. Helmy is the first Arab to have been so honoured.

THE

INCREDIBLE

STORY OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE


NON-JEWS WHO HELPED JEWS
DURING WWII
Sir Martin Gilbert
University of California Television (UCTV)    2008 (15.25)

How, as the Third Reich carried out its program to
exterminate European Jewry,
many Gentiles risked their careers and lives to conceal and rescue
Jewish refugees.

WTHE INTERNATIONAL
HOLOCAUST REMEMBRANCE ALLIANCE (IHRA)

NAMES AND NUMBERS OF RIGHTEOUS AMONG THE NATIONS -
PER COUNTRY & ETHNIC ORIGIN, AS OF JANUARY 1, 2016
Yad Vashem


The numbers of Righteous are not necessarily an indication of the actual number of rescuers in each country,
but reflect the cases that were made available to Yad Vashem
.

(see also
Database of Righteous Among the Nations  Yad Vashem


Albania 75

France 3,925

 Peru 1

Armenia 24

Georgia 1

 Poland 6,620

Austria 107

Germany 587

Portugal 3

Belarus 618

Great Britain
(Incl. Scotland) 21

Romania 60

Belgium 1,707

Greece 328

Russia 197

Bosnia 42

Hungary 837

 Serbia 135

Brazil 2

Indonesia 2

Slovakia 558

Bulgaria 20

Ireland 1

Slovenia 7

Chile 1

Italy 671

Spain 7

China 2

Japan 1

 Sweden 10

Croatia 115

Latvia 135

 Switzerland 47

Cuba 1

 Lithuania 889

 Turkey 1

Czech Republic 115

 Luxembourg 1

 Ukraine 2,544

Denmark* 22

Macedonia 10

 USA 5

Ecuador 1

 Moldova 79

 Vietnam 1

Egypt 1

 Montenegro 1


El Salvador 1

 Netherlands 5,516

TOTAL: 26,120

Estonia 3

Norway 62



* The Danish Underground requested that all its members who participated in the rescue of the Jewish community not be listed individually,
but commemorated as one group.

SUMMARY BY COUNTRY



SOME OTHERS WHO RESCUED JEWS DURING THE HOLOCAUST

NAME

NATIONALITY

Archbishop Damaskinos Papandreou

Greece

Feng-Shan Ho

Chinese

Carl Lutz

Switzerland

Aristides de Sousa Mendes

Portugal

Giorgio Perlasca

Italy

Oskar Schindler

Germany

Irena Sendler

Poland

Archimandrite Klymentiy Sheptytsky

Ukraine

Chiune Sugihara

Japan

Raoul Wallenberg

Sweden

Ángel Sanz Briz

Spain


Salvadoran diplomat
JOSE ARTURO CASTELLANOS,
 (San Vicente, El Salvador, December 23, 1893 — San Salvador, June 18, 1977)
who saved tens of thousands of
European Jews during the
Holocaust by giving them false
 El Salvadoran identity papers.


Salvadoran diplomat
GEORGE MANDEL-MANTELLO
(11 December 1901
Bistriţa, Romania
 – 25 April 1992
Rome, Lazio, Italy)
A Jewish diplomat who, while working for the Salvadoran consulate in Geneva, Switzerland from 1942 to 1945, saved thousands of Jews from the Holocaust by providing them with fictive Salvadoran citizenship papers.

He was also instrumental in publicizing in mid-1944 the deportation of Hungarian Jews to the Auschwitz concentration camp.


Two, one Christian  and one Jew, who together saved
tens of thousands of Jews from the Nazis
Go to El Salvador fo more informattion