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THE EVOLUTION OF ANTISEMITISM   
___________________________________________________


EDITORS NOTE

A Chronology: Anti-Semitism and Persecution of Jews  From Ancient times and Today
shows what has happened over the past 2,000 years. In 135 CE Bar Kochba was defeated by the Romans.  The Romans ‘deleted’ the Jewish state Judah from the map and the Jews became stateless.  They then became ‘outsiders’ in theocratic countries who used a mixture of warfare, missionaries and local force to convert inhabitants to their religion.  Its severity varied depending upon local control and how religious and financial concepts were applied.

Anti-Jewish myths have been repeated causing riots and destruction.  These include ‘the Blood Libel’ or ‘Ritual Murder’.  

Wikipedia states there ha been 150 recorded cases and thousands of rumours since then.  For example

Today’ 26% of the world’d population is antisemitic.. The daily consequences are discrimination, the major expense of sophisticated security systems, airport queues, guarding against planes being hijacked or blown up in mid flight, on a bus or tube and someone going into a civilian area and blowing themself up with those around them.  


For more detail see  Christianity and  Antisemitism

                                    Christianity

                                    Understanding Islam

                                    Islam

____________________________________________________________________

CONSEQUENCES OF ANTISEMITISM FOR THE JEWS


 Book Burning  *  Jews Enslaved  *  Stake Burnings * Burning Alive

     Forced Conversion  *  Holocaust  *  Pogrom  *  Book Confiscation

Synagogue Burning  *  Land Confiscation *  Mass Arrests   *   Boycotts  

Property Confiscation  *  Judaism Outlawed  *  Mob Attacks  *   Public Torture

Expulsion  *  Forced Conversion  *  Jews Burned Alive  *  Forced to Wear Badges

        

How these consequences were built into Catholic culture can be seen by the following article published in 1825
(from ‘The Popes Against the Jews’ pp 63-5 by David Kertzer)

Among the beneficiaries of the new Pope’s policies (Pope Leo XII 1823-29) was the Holy office of the Inquisition (Editor’s note: This refers to the Roman Inquisition, who were responsible to the Pope, and only abolished after Italian Unification in 1861 with the abolition of the Papal States).  which Leo XII turned to for help in his efforts.6  In the first year of his papacy, he had the Holy Office investigate the extent to which the old restrictions on the Jews in the Papal States were still being enforced……One of the first signs of this new ideological offensive was publication, in 1825, of a long treatise on the Jews in Rome’s Ecclesu cal Journal, which was subsequently published as a separate book and went through four printings in 1825-26. Written by the procura general of the Dominican order, Father Ferdinand Jabalot, it had been directly inspired by Della Genga when he was still cardinal vicar of Rome

The booklet resurrected many of the traditional Catholic accusations against the Jews: Jews were guilty of deicide, and were crazed with lust for lucre and the desire to bring about the ruin of Christians. So intense was their hatred of Christianity that no evil was too great for them: "They wash their hands in Christian blood, set fire to churches ' trample the consecrated Host... kidnap children and drain them of their blood, violate virgins," and on and on.8

The exiguous number of Jews in Italy—they constituted less than 0.2 percent of the population—did not deter Jabalot from attributing to them a huge—and pernicious—influence. "In many parts of our land the Jews have become the richest property owners. In some cities money can not be had, except through them, and so great has the number of mortgages they hold over Christians become, that it is only barely that the Christians have not yet become their vassals." As for the Jews’ character, the portrait could scarcely be worse: "Everywhere one hears of decep­tions and frauds they have committed.” Many of them are "pickpockets, thieves, swindlers, assassins," and their houses “are the general deposits for all kinds of stolen goods.” The Jews are ever busy "cheating, and hoodwinking Christians," which was no surprise, since the Talmud—the Jews' sacred compilation of rabbinical commentary on the laws that gov­erned both their religious beliefs and their social practices—called on Jews to cheat Christians at every opportunity. Christians unfortunate enough to fall into their clutches, Jabalot warned, are likely to emerge "not only without their shirt, but without their skin.”9

Along with the traditional Catholic charges, Jabalot’s text provides some of the germs of what would become the major focus of later-nineteenth-century Catholic characterizations of the Jews. Wherever they live, wrote the Dominican, the Jews “form a state within a state.” Unless Christians act quickly, the Jews "will finally succeed in reducing the Christians to be their slaves. Woe to us if we close our eyes! The Jews’ domination will be hard, inflexible, tyrannical. .. .”ro The year was 1825. Jews had not yet been given equal rights in any part of Italy, nor in most of the rest of Europe.  The Pope was pleased with Jabalot’s work, and not long after its publi­cation appointed him head of the Dominican order worldwide.11

The Holy Office’s request in 1823 that the bishops and inquisitors report on the situation of the Jews in their jurisdiction unleashed an out­pouring of complaints about the Jews. Everywhere, the bishops and inquisitors wrote, the Jews were flouting the laws of the land, trying to hold on to freedoms they had won during the French occupation.

The town of Pesaro, not far from Ancona, was typical. The inquisi­tor there recounted that the previous fall, during the local harvest festi­val, Jews had danced "promiscuously” with Christians, bringing to the inquisitor’s mind "a particular proclivity of the Jews for seducing Chris­tian women.” The gates of Pesaro’s ghetto were no longer closed at night, and conversations between Christians and Jews had become frequent; indeed, Jews thought nothing of inviting Christians to their weddings and circumcisions. Some Jewish families now lived outside the ghetto, he reported. Others, while living within the ghetto’s walls, employed female Christian servants, and these women had stopped

MEDIEVAL SUPERSTITIONS ABOUT JEWS - SOME TYPICAL ONES INCLUDED:

Jews poison the wells - This libel was supposed to be the origin of plagues and particularly the black plague.

Jews desecrate the host - Spoilage of communion wafers, which turned red from a fungus, was attributed to Jews who had dipped the wafers in the blood of slaughtered Christians.

Jews kill Christians in secret - For example, explaining the reasons for expulsion of the Jews from France, the French monk Rigord (d. 1205) related that [Philip Augustus had often heard] that the Jews who dwelt in Paris were wont every year on Easter day, or during the sacred week of our Lord's Passion, to go down secretly into underground vaults and kill a Christian as a sort of sacrifice in contempt of the Christian religion. For a long time they had persisted in this wickedness, inspired by the devil, and in Philip's father's time, many of them had been seized and burned with fire.

The blood libel - A variation of the secret killings theme, the blood libel insists that Jews kill pre-pubertal Christian boys in order to prepare the unleavened bread (Matzoth) of the Passover. It was possibly born in 1144 in England, where a Christian mob accused Jews of murdering the boy William of Norwich during Easter. This story was related in The Life and Miracles of St William of Norwich, by Thomas of Monmouth, a Norwich monk. This story, did not claim that the Jews used the blood to bake unleavened bread, but rather claimed the boy had been crucified. Nonetheless, it is often considered to be the first "blood libel." Others soon followed, including Simon of Trent and Andreas of Rinn. In one variant, the child was not killed but rather bled to death.

In Spain in 1490 or 1491 Spanish inquisitors forced Jews to confess that they had killed a Christian child, one Christopher of Toledo or Christopher of La Guardia, later made a saint of the Roman Catholic church and venerated as Santo Nino de La Guardia. No missing child was ever reported that would correspond to this child and corroborate the tale. The tale was elicited from the victims by the holy inquisitors under torture, by suggestion (for example, "Confess that on this date you did do X") it is likely that the blood libel was well known by this time.

The Talmud - The Talmud supposedly contained conspiratorial formulae, imprecations against Jesus and Mary and injunctions to cheat and discriminate against non-Jews. Therefore it would often banned or censored.

Physiognomy - In addition to characteristic large noses and stooped postures, Jews in the Middle Ages may be shown with tails and horns, similar to the devil.

PARTIAL LIST OF PAPAL BULLS AND OTHER RELEVANT DOCUMENTS ON THE JEWISH QUESTION

From Zionism-israel

Following is a partial list of Papal Bulls and other relevant documents regarding the Jewish question, illustrating both the partial protection offered the Jews at different times and the institutionalization of Anti-Semitism.

Where protection was offered, it was often done in a condescending manner, asserting the Christian duty to have mercy on the Jews even though they were collectively guilty of killing Jesus (or in modern times, "forgiving" the Jews for killing Jesus) or was simply rescinding previous decrees. Catholic persecution of Jews - and protection - began in the Middle Ages, but the persecution continued and was intensified well after the Middle Ages, notably in the Inquisition and in the formation and regulation of ghettos, which began in the 1500s, well after the end of the Middle Ages. The Papal bulls and encyclicals that advanced and supported anti-Semitism included the following sorts of decrees:

 Special badges or dress for Jews

 Special taxes for Jews

 Forcing Jews to remit debt of Christians

 Banning, confiscating or burning Jewish law books and other writings.

 Encouraging or forcing conversion of Jews 

 Expelling Jews from Papal territories or forcing Jews to live in ghettos.

 Inquisition for backsliding converted Jews,

Many believed and hoped that Catholic persecution of Jews had ended in the period of Pope John XXIII. Recent Bulls and Encyclicals of Pope Benedict XVI that reinstate anti-Semitic prayers and Catholic societies do not augur well.

Pius V was perhaps the worst of the anti-Semitic Popes. He was nonetheless canonized and the canonization was not rescinded.

In addition to the actual regulations depriving Jews of livelihood or home or forcing conversions, the Bulls often were prefaced with language of racist incitement that indicated the attitude of the Catholic Church to Jews.

The Bull Cum Nimis Absurdum ("How completely absurd") of Paul IV, 1555, which created the ghetto of Rome, began with these words:

As it is completely absurd and improper in the utmost that the Jews, who through their own fault were condemned by God to eternal servitude,

The Bull Hebraeorum gens ("The Jewish Race") 1569, of Saint Pius V, which expelled Jews from some of the Papal states, began with these words:

 "The Jewish people fell from the heights because of their faithlessness and condemned their Redeemer to a shameful death. Their godlessness has assumed such forms that, for the salvation of our own people, it becomes necessary to prevent their disease. Besides usury, through which Jews everywhere have sucked dry the property of impoverished Christians, they are accomplices of thieves and robbers; and the most damaging aspect of the matter is that they allure the unsuspecting through magical incantations, superstition, and witchcraft to the Synagogue of Satan and boast of being able to predict the future. We have carefully investigated how this revolting sect abuses the name of Christ and how harmful they are to those whose life is threatened by their deceit. On account of these and other serious matters, and because of the gravity of their crimes which increase day to day more and more, We order that, within 90 days, all Jews in our entire earthly realm of justice -- in all towns, districts, and places -- must depart these regions."

The above is quoted in modern anti-Semitic works, including Catholic publications and the Stormfront Website.

To the modern reader, the Papal bulls seem to present a conflicting picture. Sometimes privileges were revoked and sometimes extended. Often the same Pope would order protection of the Jews from bodily harm but enact discriminatory laws of various kinds. Thus, the church would encourage hatred of Jews, but then it would discourage violence against Jews. For Catholic theology there was no contradiction. The role of the Jews was to serve as an example of the wages of sin to Christians. Therefore, the Jews must be tortured and ridiculed, but never killed. 

The documents listed below are Papal Bulls unless otherwise noted. The Bulls get their titles from the initial words, generally the first three words, of the text of the document, which are known as the incipit. Note that there may be several Bulls with the same title by different Popes, and on entirely different subjects.

Explanation of terms:

"Jus Gasaga" - a corruption of "Jus Chazaka" - the law of the right of tenancy of Jews, usually in ghetto homes.

Catechumen - a person being taught the Catechism, a new convert. The Bulls called for a special tax on Jews, to be used to support the catechumens. The house of Catechumens in Rome was used as an instrument for forced conversion, and its victims included the chief Rabbi of Rome.

Neophyte - a new convert. 

The sources generally do not distinguish between Bulls, encyclicals and other documents of more limited circulation.  

PAPAL BULLS AND OTHER DOCUMENTS RELATING TO JEWS

Gregory I Sicut  judaeis non 598 A letter, supplemented by others, provided limited protection of Jews.

"Just as no freedom may be granted to the Jews in their communities to exceed the limits legally set for them, so they should in no way suffer through a violation of their rights"

The letter contained the phrase "Sicut Judaeis" - and thus to the Jews. Gregory forbade Jews to have Christian slaves, and encouraged conversions. The measures of protection along with limitations and persecution, and even the wording of Sicut iudaeis were repeated in subsequent bulls and letters of various popes. It became the model for treatment of Jews.  

Calixtus II Sicut Judaeis c. 1120  Probably the first formal version of Sicut Judaies. Reiterates protection of the Jews in the wake of the persecutions of the first Crusade.  

Innocent III Post miserabile Aug. 1198 Addressed to prelates of Europe and dealt with the need for another Crusade. Suspended payment of interest and principal to Jewish lenders for crusaders. Since many did not return, the debt was effectively cancelled.

Innocent III Etsi non displiceat 1205 Addressed to King of France. Accuses Jews of usury, blasphemy, arrogance, employing Christian slaves and murder. Urges king to put an end to the "evils."  

Honorius III Sicut  judaeis non debet esse licentia Nov. 7, 1217 Forbids forced baptism of Jews or molestation.   

Honorius III In general consilio 1218 To archbishop of Toledo, requires enforcement of 4th Lateran Council decisions that Jews must wear special clothing and pay tithes to the local churches.   

Honorius III Ad nostram Noveritis audientiam April 29, 1221 Jews are obliged to carry a distinctive badge and forbidden to hold public office.

Gregory IX Sufficere debuerat perfidioe judoerum perfidia March 5, 1233 Jews forbidden to employ Christian servants.

Gregory IX Etsi Judeorum 1233 To prelates of France, urged prevention of physical violence against Jews.  

Gregory IX Si vera sunt 1239 To kings and prelates of Spain and France - orders seizure of Talmud and other Jewish books and examination for blasphemy against Jesus. These books were regularly burned or censored.   

Innocent IV Impia judoerum perfidia May 9, 1244 French King ordered to burn the Talmud. Jews forbidden to employ Christian nurses.

Innocent IV Lachrymabilem Judaeorum 1247 To German prelates; orders an end to persecution of Jews and declares that the blood libel accusation is false.  

Clement IV Turbato corde July 26, 1267 Christians forbidden to embrace Judaism

Gregory X Turbato corde March 1, 1274 (Identical to previous.)

Nicolas III Vineam Sorec Aug. 4, 1278 Addressed to orders of friars - Preaching to the Jews is encouraged and friars are to be specially trained for this purpose. Also known as Vineam Soreth.   

Nicolas IV Turbato corde  Sept. 5, 1288 Christians who embrace Judaism  

John XXII Ex Parte Vestra Aug. 12, 1317 Relapse of converts.

John XXII  Cum sit absurdum June 19, 1320 Converted Jews need not be despoiled.

Clement VI Quamvis Perfidiam September 26, 1348 Tries in vain to dispel the superstition that Jews are responsible for Black Death by poisoning the wells  

Urban V Sicuti judaeis non debet June 7, 1365 Forbidden to molest Jews or to force them to baptism.

Benedict XIII
(Anti-Pope) Etsi doctoribus gentium 1415 A collection of anti-Jewish church legislation that served as an inspiration to other Popes.  

Martin V Sedes apostolica June 3, 1425 Jews obliged to wear distinctive badge.

Eugene IV Dudum ad nostram audientiam Aug. 4, 1442 Forbade Jews to live with Christians or fill public functions, etc.

Calixtus III Si ad reprimendos May 28, 1456 Confirmed the preceding Bull of Eugene IV forbidding Jews to live with Christians.  

Sixtus IV Numquam dubitavimus 1482 To Ferdinand of Aragon, to appoint inquisitors to extirpate heresy and investigate backsliding of Jewish converts to Christianity. The Spanish Inquisition and expulsion of the Jews from Spain followed.  

Paul III Cupientes judaeos March 21, 1542 Privileges in favor of neophytes (a new convert to a religion).

Paul III Illius, qui pro dominici Feb. 19, 1543 Establishment of a monastery for catechumens and neophytes.

Jules III Pastoris aeternivices  Aug. 31, 1554 Tax in favor of neophytes

Paul IV Cum Nimis Absurdum July 14, 1555 Jews forbidden to live in common with Christians, to practice any industry, etc.

Paul IV Dudum postquam March 23, 1556  Tax in favor of neophytes

Pius IV Cum inter ceteras Jan. 26, 1562 Bull relative to monastery of catechumens.

Pius IV Dudum e felicis recordationis  Feb. 27, 1562 Bull confirming that of Paul IV.

Pius V Romanus Pontifex April 19, 1566 Bull confirming that of Paul IV

Pius V Sacrosanctae catholicae ecclesiae Nov. 29, 1566 Bull relating to convent of neophytes

Pius V Cum nos nuper Jan. 19, 1567 Jews are forbidden to own real estate

Pius V Hebraeorum gens Feb. 26, 1569 Accuses Jews of many evils including magic. Orders expulsion of Jews from Church States except Rome and Ancona.

Gregory XIII Vices ejus nos Sept. 1, 1577 Obligatory preaching of Christian sermons to Jews;. Creation of college of neophytes.

Gregory XIII Antiqua judaeorum improbitas July 1, 1581 Against blasphemers.

Gregory XIII Sancta Mater Ecclesiae Sept. 1, 1584 Obligatory preaching of Christian sermons to Jews;100 men and 50 women must be sent every Saturday to listen to conversion sermons delivered in a church near the ghetto.  

Sixtus V Christiana pietas Oct. 22, 1586 Privileges granted to Jews by relief of former edicts. These were reversed. by Clement VIII.   

Clement VIII Cum saepe accidere  Feb. 28, 1592 Jews of Avignon forbidden to sell new goods.

Clement VIII Caeca et obdurata Feb. 25, 1593 Confirmation of the Bull of Paul III. Jews forbidden to dwell outside of Rome, Ancona, and Avignon.

Clement VIII Cum Haebraeorum malitia Feb. 28, 1593 It is forbidden to read the Talmud.

Paul V Apostolicae servitutis July 31, 1610 Regulars (of monks) obliged to learn Hebrew.

Paul V Exponi nobis nuper fecistis Aug. 7, 1610 Bull concerning the dowries of Jewish women.

Urban VIII Sedes apostolica April 22, 1625 Concerning heretical Portuguese Jews.  

Urban VIII Injuncti nobis Aug. 20, 1626 Privileges granted to the monastery of catechumens

Urban VIII Cum sicut acceptimus Oct. 18, 1635 Obligation to feed poor Jews imprisoned for debt.

Urban VIII Cum allias piae March 17, 1636 Synagogues of the Duchies of Ferarri and Urban, to pay a tax of 10 ecus.

Alexander VII Verbi aeterni Dec. 1, 1657 Bull relating to rights of neophytes regarding jus gasaga.(rights of tenancy in the ghetto)  

Alexander VII Ad ea per quae Nov. 15, 1658 Jus Gasaga (rights of tenancy in the ghetto)  

Alexander VII Ad apostolicae dignitatis May 23, 1662 Concordat between the college of neophytes and German college.

Alexander VII Illius, qui illuminat March 6, 1663 Privileges favoring the fraternities of neophytes.

Alexander VIII Animarum saluti March 30, 1690 Bull relating to the neophytes in Indies.

Innocent XII Ad radicitus submovendum Aug. 31, 1692 Abolition of special jurisdiction

Clement XI Propagandae per unicersum  March 11, 1704 Confirmation and extension of Paul III regarding neophytes.

Clement XI Essendoci stato rappresentato Jan. 21, 1705  Powers of Vicar of Rome in jurisdiction of catechumens and neophytes

Clement XI Salvatoris nostri vices Jan. 2, 1712 Transfer to "Pii Operai" the work of the catechumens.

Innocent XIII Ex injuncto nobis Jan. 18, 1724 Prohibits sale of new objects.

Benedict XIII Nuper, pro parte dilectorum Jan. 8, 1726 Establishment of dowries for young girl neophytes.

Benedict XIII Emanavit nuper  Feb. 14, 1727 Necessary conditions for imposing baptism on a Jew.

Benedict XIII Alias emanarunt March 21, 1729 Forbidding the sale of new goods.

Benedict XIV Postremomens Feb. 28, 1747 The baptism of Jews

Benedict XIV Apostolici Ministerii munus  Sept. 16, 1747 Right of repudiation of neophytes.

Benedict XIV Singulari Nobis consoldtioni Feb. 9, 1749 Marriages between Jews and Christians.

Benedict XIV Elapso proxime Anno  Feb. 20, 1751 Concerning Jewish heretics.

Benedict XIV Probe te meminisse Dec. 15, 1751 Baptism of Jewish children

Benedict XIV  Beatus Andreas Feb. 22, 1755 Martyrdom of a child by Jews. A blood libel concerning the murder of the child Andreas Oxner or Anderl von Rinn (Andreas of Rinn ) by Jews that supposedly took place in 1462 in Rinn near Innsbruck. Confirms the blood libel as factual. The Bull reviews the cases of ritual murder by Jews, which it explicitly upholds as a fact, and establishes the beatifcation but not the canonization of Andreas of Rinn and Simon of Trent  

from: Laureen Moe  Source: Canadian Friends, International Christian Embassy, Jerusalem

This information has been gleaned from Alan Lazerte's course on antisemitism given at Fraserview Assembly, January, February and March 1983 as Director of the Canadian Friends of the International Christian Embassy, Jerusalem.

The information from this course was a shock to most of us; it was an eye opener in many ways, especially regarding the Christians persecution of the Jew; which contributed to the Nazi attempt to totally exterminate them. This essay was written as a requirement of taking seriously Alan's attempt to put the course together. He did his part as teacher excellently. God has chosen well. I was eager to learn. At Alan' suggestion this essay is being printed to circulate to others who may not have a chance to attend the lectures. It is also printed to cement my own vow before God to bridge the gap and make amends to the Jew for the way Christians, the Canadian Government and others have failed them.

I dedicate this to the children that never came; and to my brother who died trying to stop a mad man that was on the loose in Germany.


The word "antisemitism" is inadequate. It is a misnomer. The word was coined in 1879 from the Greek words "anti", meaning "against" and "Semite", meaning a descendant of Shem. The word was first used by Wilhelm Marr a German agitator, who created it to explain the current anti-Jewish campaigns in Europe. Since the Arab peoples are also Semitic people it is not the best expression. Anti-Jewish, and Jew- hatred, are more descriptive. It is more than just prejudice. The word came into general use in the past hundred years and encompasses all forms of hostility manifested toward Jews throughout history.

There can be economic and social or racial antisemitism. It didn't reach epidemic proportions until 175 B.C. Previous uprisings against Jews were not really anti-Semitic. It began almost exclusively in countries which later became part of the Roman Empire. Prejudice flared it seems because Jewish people in honouring their Jewish laws, appeared to be in defiance of Gentile governments. The false assumption began to emerge that Jews didn't have any respect for whatever was held in esteem by the rest of humanity.

In the Greek Hellenistic period no other nation denied the gods of it's neighbours; on the contrary they recognized those gods, identifying them with their own deities. These heathen "gods" created a social bond between people in their domains. None of the people refrained from dining at table with their neighbours and from partaking of the sacrifices offered to their gods except the Jews. None of the peoples refused to send gifts to its neighbours temples, except the Jews. None of the peoples was unequivocally hostile to intermarriage except the Jews.

In the eastern Mediterranean area friction arose over the difference in occupations between Jews and Gentiles. The Jewish population was engaged primarily in small scale farming; the non-Jewish population occupied itself primarily in commerce. The sea trade was almost entirely in the hands of the trans-Jordanian cities, which connected Syria, Asia Minor and the regions of the Euphrates with the Arabian countries. The inhabitants of Eretz Israel had connections abroad. Non-Jews also knew that Jews looked upon their land as their divine inheritance.

The first serious manifestation of antisemitism was in the days of the Syrian, Antiochus Epiphanes in 175 B.C. Hellenistic rulers saw the unfriendliness of the Jews as obstacles to the cultural scene. He undertook to destroy those laws of the Talmud that he regarded as unacceptable to humanity. To this end he desecrated their place of worship by sacrificing a pig on their altar in Jerusalem, and ordered that the residual juices be sprinkled over the Holy Books containing these Jewish laws.

Greek authors in the first century portrayed the Jewish people as descendants of a mob of lepers. They further stated that because of this uncleanness Jews shunned the flesh of pigs, since pigs were more prone to contract disease. The Gentiles knew that their own pagan religions and practices rendered them unclean in the eyes of the Jews.

The fact remains that even after four thousand years the idea of a covenant between the Jews and Jehovah is still alive; and is mentioned daily in prayers in synagogues throughout the world. The idea of a covenant with God has remained constant. Because Jehovah is immortal He never dies and because He never dies He never has to be reincarnated. Thus the Jews dispensed with the reincarnation rites of the pagans. The Jews' God was invisible. The concept of "one God", Jehovah, being completely withdrawn from sexuality led to a curb of licentious impulses through inner discipline. By contrast, the Greek gods themselves set the pattern for the unbridled lust and perversion which finally weakened the moral fibre of that people; whereas the Jews, even when they later came in contact with the Greeks, refused to indulge in the Grecian sexual excesses, which included even temple prostitution. The Jewish religion did away with all fertility rites.

As a consequence of the Jewish dietary laws, intermarriage was forbidden and no real social intercourse with gentiles was possible. Also, Jews refused to enter into Emperor worship. It was considered to be an expression of loyalty to the state. About their own religious practices a libel began to circulate that Jews actually sacrificed humans on their altars, allegedly using the blood for Passover rites. Further it was said that the sacrificed person must be a Christian or one of their children. This became known as the "Blood Libel" against the Jews. It mattered not that it was a total fabrication.

Another libel circulating was that unclean leprous people were expelled from Egypt, and that the Jews were these people. Therefore, being foreigners, it was stated that the Jews had no right to claim ancient Israel as their divinely given land.

The destruction of the temple by Titus in 70 CE was seen as hatred by God of the Jews, and as punishment. Jews in Rome felt the barbs of Roman writers. Nero's teacher was anti-Semitic. Cornelius Tacitus wrote about every libellous fabrication against Jews that he could find in Greek anti-Semitic literature. Juvenal wrote a poem revealing that to him the Jews were hateful not only to man but to the gods as well.

In the fourth century CE, when Constantine became the Roman Emperor and supposedly converted to Christianity, he harnessed political power to religion and passed anti-Jewish laws, whereby Jews were excluded from every sphere of political influence and denied civic rights.

The Gospel accounts began to be the source from which wrong teachings grew, until the word "Deicide" meant the Jews killed God, and were labelled "Christ-killers". Matthew 27:25 which spoke of some Jewish leaders was used instead to apply to all Jews: "His blood be on us and on our children...Ye are of your father the devil."

Converts to Christianity and converts to Judaism sparked a seriously divisive rivalry. Religious competition began between the Greek fathers of the Church, and Jews. Church laws were passed whereby Jewish relations with Christian women was now punishable by death. Antisemitism at this time was mainly limited to the clergy, who were the educated minority.

Islam arose in the seventh century CE, and also attacked the Jews because the Jews did not recognize Muhammad as a legitimate Prophet. The Koran contained their writings; and many statements in it were hostile to Jews. In the Middle Ages church councils legislated to prevent contact with the Jews because Christians were saying after visiting synagogues that the Jews were better priests.

The above catalogue is only the tip of the iceberg! One would think that anti-Jewish atrocities would have ended with the nightmare of the Holocaust. One-third of the world's Jews were murdered by an ungodly German conspiracy that had accused the Jews of "conspiracy". It is not often emphasized that two-thirds of the world's Jews survived; and that due to the faithfulness of their G-d. God has again, as in times past, protected them from total extermination, as He promised. (the Book of Esther, and Jeremiah 31:35-37)

The Holocaust was the final catalyst which led to the re-creation of the State of Israel in 1948. But we have to go back at the very least to the Dreyfus Case to understand the long range process.

Alfred Dreyfus was the son of a wealthy Alsatian family in France. He entered the French Army in 1892 and became a Captain, and the only Jew. He was framed by a fellow officer for allegedly giving secrets to the enemy, arrested and tried for treason. He was sentenced to life imprisonment. Eventually Emile Zola took up the fight proclaiming the man's innocence and published an open letter to the President of France titled "I ACCUSE." Dreyfus was eventually declared unjustly convicted by the Parliament of France. The injustice was totally motivated by Jew-hatred.

During the course of the trumped-up trial a Jewish journalist became involved; and he was the man that was to lead the Jews back to their Land. His name was THEODORE HERZL (1860 - 1904 A.D.) and he called European Jewry together in Basle, Switzerland in 1897 at the now famous "First World Zionist Congress". There in 1897 he publicly predicted to friend and foe alike that the Jews would be back in "the Land" of Palestine "within 50 years". In 1947, exactly fifty years later the United Nations passed the "Resolution For the Partition of Palestine", which lead to the declaration of Statehood on May 14,1948.

With the shouts of "death" to the Jews still ringing in his ears from the Dreyfus Trial, Herzl became convinced that the only solution was the mass exodus of the Jews from their present places of residence to a territory of their own... So out of the suffering of the Dreyfus family came the State of Israel. Herzl became the father of Political Zionism and founder of the World Zionist organization.

Herzl was born in Budapest. He left a German students society in 1883 in protest against his first encounter with anti-Semitism. He came across this "Jewish problem" again and again in his life. Although he graduated in 1884 with a doctorate of law he left the legal profession and became a famous writer. He wrote many literary works, some of them plays.

In 1891 he became the Paris correspondent of a Vienna newspaper. He pursued politics and organized the first Zionist Congress is Basle in 1897. (In 1960, Israel issued a centenary stamp with a well known painting of Herzl on the bridge at Basle.) The World Zionist organization was formed. He was chairman and remained so for the next five congresses. He knew Great Britain would be the deciding factor in the realization of Zionist aims. In 1917 the Balfour Declaration became the launching-pad for the founding of the modern Jewish state.

Herzl did not have an easy task. Even his own people were difficult on this issue. His heart failed in 1904. He did not live to see the creation of Israel in 1948. But in 1949 he was laid to rest, reinterred, in a place that was named in his honour Mount Herzl, in Jerusalem. A Herzl monument stands nearby. The anniversary of his death on the 20th of Tammuz was declared a National Memorial Day in Israel. In the April 1983 issue of the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC, following a report on Jerusalem there is a picture that could be titled: "The sorrow of the Jewish People". There are three young Israeli ladies, soldiers, who happen to be very beautiful standing or kneeling at the Herzl Tomb site where there are three new graves...the first soldiers to die in the 1982 conflict in Lebanon.

1983 was the 50th anniversary of Hitler's rise to power; since he was made chancellor in 1933. There was an extensive report on this subject in the April 1983 issue of the Jerusalem Post. Their man in Bonn stated: "There has been no substantial break with the past. Therefore West German Democracy must continue to be subject to question by Germans more than by anyone else." The Post also offered these words which are worth contemplating. Perhaps you never considered this. I had not...

"The destruction that Hitler brought on his own people ranks only after the mass murder he committed on the Jews and the destruction and death rained upon the Soviet Union. He left Germany not only physically ruined, but stripped of its' self respect, ashamed of its' place in human history, uncertain of its' identity, seeking refuge in the compulsive reconstruction of material damage."

They also mentioned...

"The war Hitler unleashed and the organized mass murder that was a central part of his design cost the lives of 40 million human beings in Europe alone. Among them 6,000,000 Jews - two-thirds of the Jews in Europe. More than 6,000,000 of his own people also died and others were left hungry."

God promised Abraham: "I will bless those who bless you (and your descendants); and I will curse those who curse you" (Genesis 12:1-3) We can see that the Germans have paid an awful price for allowing this man to lead them down a path contrary to Scripture, by declaring them to be a super race. The man who wanted to obtain the whole world, gained nothing but eternal damnation. He and those who followed him lost everything.

What about Canada?
Most of us would be quick to say that our hands are clean. A truly shocking indictment of our role in the Holocaust can be found in the book "None is Too Many". This title was taken from a statement made by an immigration official when a delegation of Jews went to Ottawa in 1939 to ask: "How many Jews will Canada take in?" The Immigration Minister answered "None is too many".

The authors, Irving Abella and Harold Troper, published this book in 1982 and was on the Canadian Best Sellers List. They received an award early in 1983 for it. It is thoroughly researched and documented proof that our top bureaucrat in the Immigration Department, Fred Blair, a professing Christian, wanted no Jews in Canada and did everything he could in the way of roadblocks to prevent it. In studying it I find I want to scream with the agony of our shame.

MacKenzie King didn't want them. Perhaps he was too busy talking to his dead mother and his dead dog as he gazed into his crystal ball (all told in his published diaries). The authors record that Canada's Prime Minister thought Hitler had a good face and that he was sweet. King was deathly afraid of what Quebec would do if he gave in and allowed in refugees. The French -Canadian press was very hostile to Jews (Le Devoir). There was also a very vocal fascist Party in Quebec; headed by Adrianne Arcand.

Blair had the opportunity to rescue thousands, but wouldn't budge on his restrictive policy. He just didn't want any Jewish immigrants.

Lester Pearson said that we didn't have a boat. Ottawa would not listen either to the pleas of George Vanier; even though he was Canadian Ambassador to France and was there on the scene.

Conservative Robert Manion didn't want any either. In the midst of all of the obstruction the Toronto Globe & Mail asked at one point "Does Canada stand for anything?" Manion wanted no Jews as long as Canadians were unemployed. Ernest LaPointe of Quebec and the Le Devoir newspaper and Vincent Massey of External Affairs wanted Jews kept out of Canada. Massey was a fringe member of the Pro-German anti-Semitic Cliveden set centred around Lord and Lady Astor in London; where Vincent was Canadian High Commissioner.

We had one social worker on the scene and her name was Charlotte Whitton, outspoken Mayor of Ottawa. She fiercely fought not to have Jewish children here as she favoured British children. She led a movement to evacuate endangered British mothers and children. The Canadian Jewish Congress saw her as an enemy of Jewish immigration. Oscar Cohen said she "almost broke up the inaugural meeting of the congress on Refugees by her insistent opposition and very apparent anti-Semitism."

The saddest story I have ever read in my life is the whole chapter from the Abella book titled "The children that never came." It takes care of any pride we may have in being Canadians. It is documented evidence 25 pages in length of continuous pleading on behalf of officials in places like France and Poland to take children whose lives were in immediate danger. Blair's hard hearted efforts lead to the declaration in the end of that chapter that reads: "There were no more schemes to help...save the refugee children. None were needed." By the time of the allied invasion of France in June 1944 most of these children had been murdered. NOT ONE of them had made it to Canada! They had been talking at times about as many as 5000.

I am happy to report that good has come out of the publishing of this book. The authors report that Lloyd Axworthy, current Minister of Immigration, apologized for the behaviour of predecessors and promised that it would never happen again. But also having read some papers by these authors prior to publication, Ron Atkey, former Conservative Minister of Immigration, took the responsibility and opened the doors to the BOAT PEOPLE because he did not want to be known as another Frederick Blair.

In "Bridges for Peace", the 1983 issue from Tulsa, Oklahoma we read about the state of anti-Semitism as in this day, media coverage is slanted.

"While some would have you believe the world is becoming a better place and anti-Semitism is on the wane, I believe that careful observation will prove otherwise. In the last two years, we have seen a growing double standard used by the media in reporting events concerning Israel. And as we saw this past summer in Greece, Italy, and France, this very distorted, even false media reporting about Israel's involvement in Lebanon resulted in attacks against local Jewish communities solely because they were Jewish; regardless of their affiliation with Israel. For example: In France a video tape of a Palestinian boy holding his bleeding, dying sister was repeatedly shown as the result of an aggressive Jewish attack on civilians in Lebanon. Local Frenchmen, incensed by this news, staged an anti-Israel, anti-Jewish march which culminated in the bombing of synagogues and Jewish owned businesses killing many. It was later proven that this video tape was six years old and showing the destruction of the Tel-Zatar refugee camp by the SYRIANS in 1976. Jews were NOT even involved but the ugly head of Anti-Semitism had already shown itself."

AND SO IT NEVER SEEMS TO END.
But it will. One day the Bible says we shall take the hem of the Jews' skirt and go with them to Zion because we know God is with them. Zechariah tells us that the Lord will come and place His feet on the Mount of Olives. He will fight for His people Israel against all the nations of the world. All the land of Israel will dwell in safety and peace when the Messiah comes. He will rule and reign from Jerusalem, the Son of David, sitting on David's throne. (Read 2 Samuel 7:11-16; and Psalm 2:6-8;and 89:20-37)
Regardless of Israel's sins of the past the Lord will forgive, cleanse, and restore (Jeremiah 31:31-34).

Christians throughout the world are awakening to a call to stand by the side of the Jewish people. Beginning in 1979 Christians in Jerusalem rallied to her side when the governments of the World began to pull their embassies out of Jerusalem in fear because of the Arab oil power. The "International Christian Embassy, Jerusalem" was established. With people like Jan Willem Van Der Hoeven and the Comfort Zion ministry of Merv and Merla Watson, Jews are beginning to be provoked to jealousy. They are watching Christian love in action; and hope is being reborn when they see 5000 Christians celebrating during the Jewish "Feast of Tabernacles", dancing with joy on Mount Zion and supporting them in their hour of need.

If Canada's Joe Clark had kept his promise to move our embassy to Jerusalem from Tel Aviv, he would have done better. Six months after breaking his promise he ceased to be Prime Minister; and twelve months later he was removed as Leader of the Progressive-Conservative Party.
Coincidence? God hears our promises; even "election promises". The Scripture says God will bless those who bless Israel and curse those who curse her. Every nation that has persecuted the Jews has, in the long run, inherited the negative side of God's promise to Abram: "and I will curse those who curse you (and your descendants)."

SO IN CONCLUSION:
Anti-Semitism is a venomous condition of the heart of man and not just prejudice, hatred or discrimination. Jealousy and envy of the Jew more than anything else seems to be the main root of this condition. It is a spiritual problem. But Jeremiah said it best and it is truth from God's Word... "The heart is deceitful, and desperately wicked; who can know it?".

Anti-Semitism engages man in a conduct that is: inconceivable, unbelievable, shocking, grotesque, incomprehensible, unthinkable, inhumane and intolerable.

This information has been gleaned from Alan Lazerte's course on anti-Semitism given at Fraserview Assembly, January, February and March 1983 as Director of the Canadian Friends of the International Christian Embassy, Jerusalem.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Bridges for Peace-current news direct from Christians in Israel through Tulsa. The Jerusalem Post - current news direct from Jews in Israel. The ISRAEL POCKET LIBRARY BOOK ON ANTI-SEMITISM. Canadian Book "None is Too Many", Irving Abella and Harold Troper. Friends of the Christian Embassy Canada, Israel Report. Jews' God and History; by Max I. Dimont. A Signet Book.

The information from this course was a shock to most of us; it was an eye opener in many ways, especially regarding the Christians persecution of the Jew; which contributed to the Nazi attempt to totally exterminate them. This essay was written as a requirement of taking seriously Alan's attempt to put the course together. He did his part as teacher excellently. God has chosen well. I was eager to learn. At Alan' suggestion this essay is being printed to circulate to others who may not have a chance to attend the lectures. It is also printed to cement my own vow before God to bridge the gap and make amends to the Jew for the way Christians, the Canadian Government and others have failed them.

I dedicate this to the children that never came; and to my brother who died trying to stop a mad man that was on the loose in Germany.

Writers: Laureen Moe
Source: Canadian Friends, International Christian Embassy, Jerusalem
http://www.cdn-friends-icej.ca/antiholo/summanti.html

ANTISEMITISM
IT DIDN’T JUST START WITH HITLER

THE

INCREDIBLE

STORY OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE


See also
THE EFFECT OF ANTISEMITISM