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ARAFAT'S OBITUARY: HERO OR TERRORIST?
The Telegraph 11 Nov 2004

Yasser Arafat, who has died in Paris, was the instantly recognisable face of Palestinian nationalism but failed in both war and peace to achieve his dream of an independent Palestinian state.

Mr Arafat, a 75-year-old ex-insurgent leader who was elected president of the Palestinian Authority in 1996, was an icon for his people.

Palestinians revered him as a nationalist symbol of their quest for statehood but many Israelis reviled him as "the face of terror".

To admirers, he braved adversity time after time to stand up for his people's rights, firstly in exile and for the last decade in the West Bank.

To his detractors, he was a master of miscalculation who "never missed an opportunity to miss an opportunity".

Many Israelis would never forgive him for a string of bombings, plane hijackings and other attacks by his Palestine Liberation Organisation in earlier decades, nor believe that he ever really changed his ways despite a public pledge for peace.

"The thing that keeps me going, the most precious thing that is always on my mind, is the regaining of dignity for the Palestinian people and restoring the name of Palestine to the map of the Middle East," he said.

Once an insurgent hero across much of the Middle East and later lauded as a historic peacemaker, he ended his days with little power, curtailed by Israeli wrath and facing opposition from Islamists and others who blamed his rule for corruption.

Mr Arafat survived plots and assassination attempts, a plane crash, isolation by Israel in his West Bank headquarters, and military defeats both to Israel and to Arab forces in countries where PLO fighters wore out their welcome.

He won the Nobel Peace prize along with Israeli leaders Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres for interim peace accords he signed with Israel on the White House lawn in 1993.

But Israel and the United States lost faith in him after the failure of a US-sponsored peace summit in July 2000 and during a now four-year-old Palestinian uprising.

Many accused him of having missed an opportunity, others said he could not have accepted a deal unless all the Palestinians' demands had been answered.

The Israelis and Americans accused him of fomenting violence and declared him irrelevant. Israel destroyed his Gaza headquarters, devastated much of his West Bank compound and kept him penned in there for more than two-and-a-half years.

Mr Arafat denied inciting bloodshed and vowed to press on with his struggle for Palestinian statehood despite repeated Israeli threats to "remove" him.

At times looking ill and weak, at others bolstered by the support of Palestinians who rallied to his side, Mr Arafat fended off Israeli attempts to bypass him and remained the dominant figure in Palestinian politics.

Mr Arafat led the Palestinian movement for four decades.

"We say that there can be no peace without Jerusalem and no peace with (Israeli) settlements," he said in 1997, outlining his official goal of a state with East Jerusalem as its capital and shorn of Israeli settlers.

He remained the leader of the PLO through its violent ejection from Jordan in 1970 and expulsion from Lebanon after the 1982 Israeli invasion.

His shift from insurgent to peacemaker brought him home in triumph to the Gaza Strip in July 1994. To Palestinians, even those lukewarm to his leadership, Mr Arafat was simply Abu Ammar, his Arabic nom de guerre, or plain al-Khityar - "The Old Man".

For the world, the abiding image is of a beaming Mr Arafat shaking hands on the White House lawn with his former nemesis Mr Rabin in 1993 to seal the Oslo interim peace accords.

The Oslo deals with Israel brought Palestinians a measure of self-rule for the first time. They also brought Mr Arafat international legitimacy in return for recognising the Jewish state and renouncing violence.

Israel recognised the PLO, but the accords did not secure Palestinians the state Mr Arafat aspired to lead.

Another image is of him addressing the United Nations general assembly in the 1970s, saying he spoke to delegates with an olive branch in one hand and a gun in the other.

A US-backed peace "road map" in 2003 envisioned a Palestinian state in 2005, but the plan was derailed by persistent violence.

It was further overshadowed by a unilateral Israeli plan to pull out of Gaza that Palestinians say will entrench Israel's hold on the far larger West Bank and kill dreams of a state on lands Israel occupied in the 1967 Middle East war.

Vowing to die for his cause if Israeli forces ever tried to pluck him from his West Bank headquarters, he said: "Die a martyr? Yes. Is there anyone in Palestine who does not dream of martyrdom?"

To detractors, however, Arafat was prone to miscalculation.

They say he repeatedly misjudged the political wind until his disastrous support for Iraq in the 1991 Gulf War cost him the backing of wealthy Gulf oil states and forced him to the negotiating table and an unequal accommodation with Israel.

His "peace of the brave", finally accepting Israel's right to exist within borders it established on much of historic Palestine in 1948, split the PLO.

It also put him firmly at odds with Islamic militants who were to form the most potent opposition to the Oslo peace deals.

Many Israelis found it hard to believe Mr Arafat could change into a man of peace, a perception that hardened during the most recent Palestinian uprising when Islamic militants killed hundreds of Israelis in suicide bombings and other attacks.

Palestinian critics said Mr Arafat installed a one-party system in the West Bank and Gaza rife with cronyism and run so single-handedly that only he could sign public sector cheques.

In recent months Mr Arafat faced unprecedented Palestinian unrest, including kidnappings and clashes in Gaza, as rivals vied for power in his greatest internal challenge in a decade.

To many Palestinians, his administration turned a blind eye to corruption, misrule and human rights abuses by the entourage that returned with him from exile.

Mr Arafat never groomed a successor, either as chairman of the PLO or as president of the self-rule Palestinian Authority.

When forced to appoint a prime minister under international pressure to share responsibilities and carry out reforms, he guarded his powers jealously.

The first prime minister, Mahmoud Abbas, quit after four months. The second, Ahmed Qurie, battled Arafat for control of the security forces.

Mr Arafat was born Mohammed Abdel-Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini on August 24, 1929, to a modest trading family.

Leading biographies say he was born in Cairo where his merchant father had settled, although Mr Arafat himself claimed to have been born in Jerusalem.

A long-time bachelor who said he was wedded to the Palestinian cause, Mr Arafat took his people by surprise in 1992 when he married Suha Tawil, a Palestinian Christian half his age. Their daughter, Zahwa, was born in 1995.


YASSER ARAFAT
Wikipedia

Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa (/ˈærəˌfæt, ˈɑːrəˌfɑːt/;[2] Arabic: محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات‎‎; 24 August 1929 – 11 November 2004), popularly known as Yasser Arafat (Arabic: ياسر عرفات‎ , Yāsir `Arafāt) or by his kunya Abu Ammar (Arabic: أبو عمار‎ , 'Abū `Ammār), was a Palestinian political leader. He was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) from 1969 to 2004 and President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) from 1994 to 2004.[3] Ideologically an Arab nationalist, he was a founding member of the Fatah political party, which he led from 1959 until 2004.

Arafat was born to Palestinian parents in Cairo, Egypt, where he spent most of his youth and studied at the University of King Fuad I. While a student, he embraced Arab nationalist and anti-Zionist ideas. Opposed to the 1948 creation of the State of Israel, he fought alongside the Muslim Brotherhood during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. Returning to Cairo, he served as president of the General Union of Palestinian Students from 1952 to 1956. In the latter part of the 1950s he co-founded Fatah, a paramilitary organisation seeking the disestablishment of Israel and its replacement with a Palestinian state. Fatah operated within several Arab countries, from where it launched attacks on Israeli targets. In the latter part of the 1960s Arafat's profile grew; in 1967 he joined the PLO and in 1969 was elected chair of the Palestinian National Council (PNC). Fatah's growing presence in Jordan resulted in military clashes with King Hussein's Jordanian government and in the early 1970s it relocated to Lebanon. There, Fatah assisted the Lebanese National Movement during the Lebanese Civil War and continued its attacks on Israel, resulting in it becoming a major target of Israel's 1978 and 1982 invasions.

From 1983 to 1993, Arafat based himself in Tunisia, and began to shift his approach from open conflict with the Israelis to negotiation. In 1988, he acknowledged Israel's right to exist and sought a two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. In 1994 he returned to Palestine, settling in Gaza City and promoting self-governance for the Palestinian territories. He engaged in a series of negotiations with the Israeli government to end the conflict between it and the PLO. These included the Madrid Conference of 1991, the 1993 Oslo Accords and the 2000 Camp David Summit. In 1994 Arafat received the Nobel Peace Prize, together with Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres, for the negotiations at Oslo. At the time, Fatah's support among the Palestinians declined with the growth of Hamas and other militant rivals. In late 2004, after effectively being confined within his Ramallah compound for over two years by the Israeli army, Arafat fell into a coma and died. While the cause of Arafat's death has remained the subject of speculation, investigations by Russian and French teams determined no foul play was involved.[4][5][6]

Arafat remains a controversial figure. The majority of the Palestinian people view him as a heroic freedom fighter and martyr who symbolized the national aspirations of his people. Conversely, most Israelis[7][8] came to regard him as an unrepentant terrorist,[9][10] while Palestinian rivals, including Islamists and several PLO leftists, often denounced him for being corrupt or too submissive in his concessions to the Israeli government.


THE PALESTINE LIBERATION ORGANIZATION/FATAH (PLO)
Wikipedia

PLO (Arabic: منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية‎; About this sound Munaẓẓamat at-Taḥrīr al-Filasṭīniyyah (help·info)) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the ‘liberation of Palestine through armed struggle’. It is recognized as the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people" by over 100 states with which it holds diplomatic relations and has enjoyed observer status at the United Nations since 1974. The PLO was considered by the United States and Israel to be a terrorist organization until the Madrid Conference in 1991. In 1993, the PLO recognized Israel's right to exist in peace, accepted UN Security Council resolutions 242 and 338, and rejected "violence and terrorism"; in response, Israel officially recognized the PLO as the representative of the Palestinian people.  
See  Mahmoud Abbas , Fatah,  
he Palestinian Authority, History and Overview


HAMAS

(Arabic: حماس‎ Ḥamās, an acronym of حركة المقاومة الاسلامية Ḥarakat al-Muqāwamah al-ʾIslāmiyyah Islamic Resistance Movement) is a Palestinian Islamic organization, with an associated military wing, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, in the Palestinian territories and elsewhere in the Middle East including Qatar. Hamas is designated as a terrorist organization by the European Union, Canada, Israel, Egypt, Japan, and the United States. Australia and the United Kingdom have designated the military wing of Hamas, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, as a terrorist organization. The organization is banned in Jordan. It is not regarded as a terrorist organization by Iran, Russia, Norway, Switzerland, Brazil, Turkey, China, and Qatar.

Hamas was founded in 1987, soon after the First Intifada broke out, as an offshoot of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, which in its Gaza branch had been non-confrontational towards Israel, refrained from resistance, and was hostile to the PLO. Co-founder Sheik Ahmed Yassin stated in 1987, and the Hamas Charter affirmed in 1988, that Hamas was founded to liberate Palestine, including modern-day Israel, from Israeli occupation and to establish an Islamic state in the area that is now Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. The group has later stated that it may accept a 10-year truce if Israel withdraws to the 1967 borders and allows Palestinian refugees from 1948, as well as their descendants, to return to what is now Israel.

The military wing of Hamas has launched attacks against Israeli soldiers and civilians. Tactics include suicide bombings, and since 2001, rocket attacks. Hamas's rocket arsenal, though mainly consisting of short-range homemade Qassem rockets, also includes long-range weapons that have reached major Israeli cities including Tel Aviv and Haifa. The attacks on civilians have been condemned as war crimes and crimes against humanity by human rights groups such as Human Rights Watch.

In the January 2006 Palestinian parliamentary elections, Hamas won a decisive majority in the Palestinian Parliament, defeating the PLO-affiliated Fatah party. Following the elections, the Quartet (the United States, Russia, United Nations, and European Union) made future foreign assistance to the PA conditional upon the future government's commitment to non-violence, recognition of the state of Israel, and acceptance of previous agreements. Hamas rejected those changes, which led to the Quartet suspending its foreign assistance program and Israel imposing economic sanctions on the Hamas-led administration. In March 2007, a national unity government headed by Prime Minister Ismail Haniyeh of Hamas was briefly formed, but this failed to restart international financial assistance.[60] Tensions over control of Palestinian security forces soon erupted in the 2007 Battle of Gaza,[60] after which Hamas took control of Gaza, while its officials were ousted from government positions in the West Bank.[60] Israel and Egypt then imposed an economic blockade of the Gaza Strip, on the grounds that Fatah forces were no longer providing security there. In 2011, Hamas and Fatah announced a reconciliation agreement that provides for creation of a joint caretaker Palestinian government. Progress stalled, until an April 2014 agreement to form a compromise unity government, with elections to be held in late 2014.

In 2006, Hamas used an underground cross-border tunnel to capture the Israeli soldier Gilad Shalit, holding him captive until 2011, when he was released in exchange for 1,027 Palestinian prisoners. Since then, Hamas has continued building a network of internal and cross-border tunnels, which are used to store and deploy weapons, shield militants, and facilitate cross-border attacks. Destroying the tunnels was a primary objective of Israeli forces in the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict.    

Hamas hands control of Gaza crossings to Palestinian Authority     The Guardian


HAMAS AND FATAH: HOW ARE THE TWO GROUPS DIFFERENT?

On Thursday, the two movements announced they had reached a deal to end a decade-long rift that brought them to an armed conflict in 2007.
Al Jazeera Zena Tahhan by Zena Tahhan 12 Oct 2017


HAMAS VS FATAH

Ideology:

Hamas - Islamist

Fatah - Secular

Strategy towards Israel:

Hamas - Armed resistance

Fatah - Negotiations

Objectives:

Hamas - Does not recognise Israel, but accepts a Palestinian state on 1967 borders

Fatah - Recognises Israel, wants to build a state on 1967 borders

Hamas then pushed Fatah out of Gaza when the latter refused to recognise the result of the vote.


Hamas and Fatah have ruled the occupied Palestinian territories of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank respectively ever since.

While the two groups work towards the same goal of building a Palestinian state on the territories that Israel occupied in 1967, consisting of East Jerusalem, the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, there are some stark differences.

What are their ideologies?

Fatah is a reverse acronym for Harakat al-Tahrir al-Filistiniya or Palestinian National Liberation Movement in Arabic. The word Fatah means to conquer.

The secular movement was founded in Kuwait in the late 1950s by diaspora Palestinians after the 1948 Nakba - the ethnic cleansing of Palestine by the Zionist movement aiming to create a Jewish modern state in historic Palestine.

Fatah was founded by several people, most notably the late president of the Palestinian Authority - Yasser Arafat, aides Khalil al-Wazir and Salah Khalaf, and Mahmoud Abbas, who is the current president of the Palestinian Authority.

The movement was premised on the armed struggle against Israel to liberate historic Palestine.

Why Fatah and Hamas won't reconcile

The main military wing of the group was al-Asifah, or the Storm. Al-Asifah fighters were based in several Arab countries as well as in the West Bank and Gaza.

The group's armed struggle against Israeli occupation began in 1965. Most of its armed operations were carried out from Jordan and Lebanon.

Under Yasser Arafat, and after the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, Fatah became the dominant party in the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO), which comprises numerous Palestinian political parties. The PLO was created in 1964 with the goal to liberate Palestine, and today acts as the representative of the Palestinian people at the United Nations.

After being pushed out of Jordan and Lebanon in the 1970s and 1980s, the movement underwent a fundamental change, choosing to negotiate with Israel.

"The Arabs basically helped in forcing Fatah to agree on taking a diplomatic route, after it was pushed out of Beirut," Nashat al-Aqtash, a ًWest Bank-based political analyst, told Al Jazeera.

In the 1990s, the Fatah-led PLO officially renounced armed resistance and backed United Nations Security Council Resolution 242, which calls for building a Palestinian state on the 1967 borders (West Bank, East Jerusalem and Gaza), alongside an Israeli state.

The PLO then signed the Oslo Accords, which led to the creation of the Palestinian National Authority, or Palestinian Authority, an interim self-governing body meant to lead to an independent Palestinian State.

Hamas is an acronym for Harakat al-Muqawamah al-Islamiyya, or Islamic Resistance Movement. The word Hamas means zeal.

The Hamas movement was founded in Gaza in 1987 by imam Sheikh Ahmed Yasin and aide Abdul Aziz al-Rantissi shortly after the start of the first Intifada, or Palestinian uprising against Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories.

The movement started as an offshoot of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt and created a military wing, the Izz al-Din al-Qassam Brigades, to pursue an armed struggle against Israel with the aim of liberating historic Palestine. It also provided social welfare programmes to Palestinian victims of the Israeli occupation.

Hamas defines itself as a "Palestinian Islamic national liberation and resistance movement", using Islam as its frame of reference.

In 2017, Hamas issued a political document effectively claiming to break ties with the Muslim Brotherhood and said it would accept a Palestinian state on the 1967 borders with the return of Palestinian refugees.

A guide to the Gaza Strip

Though the move stirred fears among its loyalists that it was giving up on the Palestinian cause, Hamas added the following clause:

"Hamas rejects any alternative to the full and complete liberation of Palestine, from the river to the sea" but considers the establishment of a sovereign Palestinian state on 1967 borders "to be a formula of national consensus".

The movement believes that the "establishment of 'Israel' is entirely illegal". This sets it apart from the PLO, of which it is not a member.

Hamas entered Palestinian politics as a political party in 2005 when it engaged in local elections, and won a landslide victory in parliamentary elections in 2006, beating Fatah.

Since 2007, Israel has launched three wars against Hamas and the Strip. After Hamas won elections in that year, Israel imposed an airtight blockade.

Civilians in Gaza have borne the brunt of the fighting. In the last Israeli assault on the Strip, more than 2,200 Palestinians were killed, including 500 children, over a span of 50 days.

How do their objectives differ?

With the release of Hamas' political document in 2017, the objectives of the two parties are effectively the same - creating a Palestinian state on the borders of 1967.

"There is no value to the clause in which Hamas says it will not give up on historic Palestine," said al-Aqtash, the political analyst. "Hamas has accepted a political compromise and they cannot go back on this."

"All Palestinians dream of liberating historic Palestine, but today, they are working on a realistic solution," he added, explaining they are focusing on "what they can achieve as opposed to what they hope of achieving".

What are their strategies?

The biggest difference between the two movements today is their attitude towards Israel.

While Hamas has clung to using armed resistance, Fatah believes in negotiating with Israel and has completely ruled out using attacks.

The Oslo Accords gave Israel full control of the Palestinian economy as well as civil and security matters in more than 60 percent of the West Bank.

Under the agreements, the PA must coordinate with the Israeli occupation over security and any armed resistance attacks planned against Israelis. This is seen as highly controversial and seen by some as the PA collaborating with the Israeli occupation.

In March, protests erupted in the West Bank when prominent Palestinian political activist Basil al-Araj was killed by Israeli forces in Ramallah, after being arrested by PA security personnel on allegations of planning an attack.

Abbas, the PA president, regularly and publicly condemns any operations of armed resistance carried out by Palestinians against Israelis.

Will Hamas give up arms for Palestinian reconciliation?

The issue of armed resistance has cast doubt over whether the unity agreement reached this week would succeed.

"The PA does not believe in the legitimacy of Hamas' arms. This means that the PA wants to end the resistance in Gaza and Hamas refuses that. And if Fatah accepts the resistance, Israel will take measures against the PA," Abdulsattar Qassem, a Nablus-based political analyst, told Al Jazeera.

"This will inevitably lead to the destruction of the potential new unity government."

How do they rally support?

Hamas' attraction lies in its ideology, compared with Fatah which has more international backing and is seen as more financially secure.

In terms of garnering support, the two employ very different tactics.

Hamas, like the Muslim Brotherhood, uses grassroots activism to inform people on its ideology, in places such as mosques and universities.

Fatah, on the other hand, no longer carries out such exercises, and relies more on providing financial support to gain followers, according to those on the ground.

Al-Aqtash says about half of Fatah loyalists "financially benefit from the PA and get rewards such as salaries and high positions - along with their families.

"Their livelihood is tied to the existence of the PA."

Many still view Fatah's Arafat as a Palestinian leader. In his time, before signing the Oslo Accords, the party supported armed resistance.

"Many of those on the street who support Fatah do so from an emotional perspective - for the slogans and the history of the movement - without really understanding what the movement's current views are," said al-Aqtash.

On the other hand, Hamas has a completely different loyalty base, says Ramallah-based activist Hazem Abu Helal.

"Hamas has a distinct ideology and they have people working to promote their ideas, as opposed to Fatah which uses money to secure its followers," Abu Helal told Al Jazeera.

"Today, if you ask university students, the majority of them do not know what Fatah's ideology is. The movement does not have clear principles."


HEZBOLLAH

Hezbollah (pronounced /ˌhɛzbəˈlɑː/;[13][14] Arabic: حزب الله‎ Ḥizbu 'llāh, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.—is a Shi'a Islamist militant group and political party based in Lebanon. Hezbollah's paramilitary wing is the Jihad Council, and its political wing is Loyalty to the Resistance Bloc party in the Lebanese parliament. After the death of Abbas al-Musawi in 1992, the group has been headed by Hassan Nasrallah, its Secretary-General.

After the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982, Israel occupied a strip of south Lebanon, which was controlled by the South Lebanon Army (SLA), a militia supported by Israel. Hezbollah was conceived by Muslim clerics and funded by Iran primarily to harass the Israeli occupation. Its leaders were followers of Ayatollah Khomeini, and its forces were trained and organized by a contingent of 1,500 Revolutionary Guards that arrived from Iran with permission from the Syrian government, which was in occupation of Lebanon at the time. Hezbollah waged a guerilla campaign in South Lebanon—SLA collapsed and surrendered, and Israel withdrew from Lebanon on May 24, 2000.

Hezbollah's military strength has grown so significantly that its paramilitary wing is considered more powerful than the Lebanese Army. Hezbollah has been described as a "state within a state", and has grown to an organization with seats in the Lebanese government, a radio and a satellite TV station, social services and large-scale military deployment of fighters beyond Lebanon's borders. Hezbollah is part of the March 8 Alliance within Lebanon, in opposition to the March 14 Alliance. Hezbollah maintains strong support among Lebanon's Shi'a population, while Sunnis have disagreed with the group's agenda.  Hezbollah receives military training, weapons, and financial support from Iran, and political support from Syria. Hezbollah also fought against Israel in the 2006 Lebanon War.

After the 2006–08 Lebanese protests and clashes, a national unity government was formed in 2008, giving Hezbollah and its opposition allies control of eleven of thirty cabinets seats; effectively veto power. In August 2008, Lebanon's new Cabinet unanimously approved a draft policy statement which secures Hezbollah's existence as an armed organization and guarantees its right to "liberate or recover occupied lands" (such as the Shebaa Farms). Since 2012, Hezbollah has helped the Syrian government during the Syrian civil war in its fight against the Syrian opposition, which Hezbollah has described as a Zionist plot and a "Wahhabi-Zionist conspiracy" to destroy its alliance with Assad against Israel. Once seen as a resistance movement throughout much of the Arab world, this image upon which the group's legitimacy rested has been severely damaged due to the sectarian nature of the Syrian Civil War in which it has become embroiled.

Hezbollah's status as a "militia", a "national resistance movement" and legitimate political party, a "terrorist group", or some combination thereof is a contentious issue. There is also "wide difference" between American and Arab perception of Hezbollah.     

Hezbollah involvement in the Syrian Civil War    Wikipedia

Hezbollah involvement in the Syrian Civil War has been substantial almost since the beginning of armed insurgency in late 2011, and turned into active support and troops deployment since 2012. By 2014, Hezbollah involvement was steady and staunch in support of the Ba'athist government forces across Syria.[2] Hezbollah deployed several thousand fighters in Syria and by 2015 lost up to 1500 fighters killed in support to the Syrian government.[3] Hezbollah has also been very active to prevent rebel penetration from Syria to Lebanon, being one of the most active forces in the Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon.

In addition, Hezbollah has served a strategic arm of Iran in Syria and Lebanon, allegedly playing a key role in the Iran-Israel proxy conflict in the region. In a number of occasions, Hezbollah weapon convoys in Syria were attacked, with Israel being the main suspected party behind most such attacks, though Israel has never claimed responsibility. Hezbollah convoys have also been attacked by Syrian rebels, most notably the Al-Nusra Front.

LINKS

Hezbollah in Syria    Institute for the Study of War,  Download the PDF by Marisa Sullivan

Palestinian Militant Groups   Wikipedia

Counter Terrorism Guide - Methods and Tactics

Hamas   Counter Terrorism Guide

Lists of Palestinian Programs & Organizations

 PLO: History of a Revolution - Death and Decline - 17 Aug 09      You Tube  (WRONG PLACE?????)


THIS TOPIC IS DIVIDED INTO TWO PARTS


Part 1  MODERN HISTORY OF ISRAEL

Part 2  JEWISH EXILES FROM ARAB COUNTRIES and

PALESTINIAN REFUGEES


PALESTINIAN GROUPS

THE

INCREDIBLE

STORY OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE


Arafat's Obituary:
Hero or Terrorist?

Yasser
Arafat


Palestine
Liberation
Organisation
(PLO) ?
Fatah

Hamas and Fatah: How are the two groups different?

Hezbollah



Links


The Story of Palestinian Mahmood Abbas>
Is he a follower of Haj Amin Al-Husseini, Mufti of Jerusalem?