CLICK HERE  TO ACCESS  COUNTRIES

T O P I C

4000 YEARS OF
JEWISH HISTORY

Jewish
Timelines


What Was the Holocaust ?

Antisemitism


Who is a Jew?

Ethnic Jewish Groups

The Jewish Law

The Hebrew Bible

Interpretation

The Temples

The Synagogues

Jewish Messiah
Ciaimants

Jewish Conversion

Jewish Women
in Judaism

Jewish
Education

Rashi's  and
Tzaddiks


Marranos

How Are Crypto Jews Different?

Jewish Diaspora

Jewish Festivals

Jewish Languages


Lost Tribes

Jewish-Roman  Wars

Year 1000

Understanding the
Middle Ages

The Inquisition

Jewish Pirates


Why has Christendom
Attacked the Jews?

Catholicism

Islam


Expulsion of the Jews  
from Arab Countries, 1948-2012


I S R A E L

Videos -

Maps -

Mogan David
(Flag of Israel)

Statistics  and Information

Jewish History
Videos

Your Feedback Please to the

jewishwikipedia.info Guestbook

Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share via e-mail Print

THE

INCREDIBLE

STORY OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE



THE BABYLONIAN EXILE
AND THE JEWISH RELIGION

________________________________________


EFFECTS OF THE BABYLONIAN EXILE ON THE JEWISH RELIGION
From Synonym by Dell Markey, Demand Media Google

The reading of the Torah became central to Judaism during the Babylonian Exile.

The Babylonian Exile is the period of Jewish history in which the people of Judea were forced to leave their historic homeland and were relocated to other parts of the Babylonian Empire. Historians place the beginning of the Babylonian Exile between 588 and 586 B.C. Like most ancient Middle Eastern people, the Jews' religious identity had been tied to their homeland. The exile brought about a number of significant changes to the way Judaism was practiced. Many of these changes still affect Judaism.

The Temple and the Synagogue

Before the Babylonian exile, Jewish religious life revolved around the Temple in Jerusalem. When the Babylonians expelled the Jews from Judea, they destroyed the Temple completely. Jewish law stipulated that certain important aspects of Jewish religious life -- most notably animal sacrifice -- could only be performed at the Temple in Jerusalem. Since the Jews now lacked both a temple and the ability to go to Jerusalem, changes were needed to retain their cultural and religious identity. The result was the rise of the synagogue among the Jews dispersed throughout the Babylonian Empire. The focus shifted from animal sacrifices, which could only be properly performed at the Temple, to the study and teaching of the Torah -- the Jewish Bible -- which became the focal point of worship in the synagogues.

Talmud Produced

This new focus gave rise to a new class of professional clergy within Judaism, the rabbi. The rabbi was and is both a scholar and a teacher, a spiritual leader tasked with explaining God's expectations to the common people. Early rabbis compiled the Talmud, a series of writings that further explain the Torah. Additionally, the biblical books of Daniel and Esther were written during the Babylonian captivity. The books of Ezra and Nehemiah detail the end of the exile. They describe the overthrow of the Babylonian Empire by the Persian Empire, the subsequent return of many of the Jews to Judea and the rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem.

Influence on Jewish Worship

Even after the Temple was rebuilt, many aspects of Jewish worship that began during the captivity continued as part of Jewish worship. These include the prominent use of the singing of Psalms, prayer and instruction as part of the synagogue service. Synagogue worship and rabbinical teaching continued to operate alongside the newly constructed Temple. For almost seven centuries, Jews came to Jerusalem to participate in the worship, sacrifices and other activities carried on at the Temple, while also engaging in worship in synagogues wherever Jewish communities existed.   (From Wikipedia A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced /ˈsɪnəɡɒɡ/ from Greek συναγωγή, synagogē, "assembly", Hebrew: בית כנסת‎‎ Bet Kenesset, "house of assembly" or בית תפילה Bet Tefila, "house of prayer", שול shul, אסנוגה esnoga or קהל kahal), is a Jewish house of prayer.

Synagogues have a large hall for prayer (the main sanctuary), and may also have smaller rooms for study and sometimes a social hall and offices. Some have a separate room for Torah study, called the Beith Midrash (Sefaradi) "beis medrash (Ashkenazi)—בית מדרש ("House of Study").

Synagogues are consecrated spaces used for the purpose of prayer, Torah reading, study and assembly; however a synagogue is not necessary for worship. Halakha holds that communal Jewish worship can be carried out wherever ten Jews (a minyan) assemble. Worship can also be carried out alone or with fewer than ten people assembled together. However, Halakha considers certain prayers as communal prayers and therefore they may be recited only by a minyan. The synagogue does not replace the long-since destroyed Temple in Jerusalem.

Israelis use the Hebrew term Beyt Knesset (house of assembly). Jews of Ashkenazi descent have traditionally used the Yiddish term shul (cognate with the German Schule, "school") in everyday speech. Sephardi Jews and Romaniote Jews generally use the term kal (from the Hebrew kahal, meaning "community"). Spanish Jews call the synagogue a sinagoga and Portuguese Jews call it an esnoga. Persian Jews and some Karaite Jews also use the non-Hebrew term kenesa, which is derived from Aramaic, and some Arab Jews use kenis. Reform and some Conservative Jews use the word temple. The Greek word synagogue is used in English (and German and French), to cover the preceding possibilities.)

Why There's No Temple Today

When the Romans sacked Jerusalem in A.D. 70, they also destroyed the Temple and expelled the Jews from Jerusalem. With the Temple again destroyed, synagogue worship again became the norm for Jewish people and continues to be so to this day. This is in part because the Muslim Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa mosque are on the site whereJewish law stipulates the Temple was to stand, effectively preventing the Temple from being rebuilt.

Monolateralism and Monotheism

Many scholars believe that the Jewish religion was monolateral before the Babylonian Exile. Simply put, that means that the Jewish people acknowledged the existence of other gods, but believed that they should only worship the god of Israel. At the time the Persian Empire overthrew the Babylonians, many of the Persians practiced Zoroastrianism, a monotheistic religion that worshiped a deity named Ahura-Mazda. Zoroastrianism went beyond monolateralism, insisting that only one god exists. Whether the concept came to Judaism through Zoroastrians or not, the teaching -- known as monotheism -- is now the central tenet of Judaism.

BABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY GIVES BIRTH TO MODERN JUDAISM
Sullivan County,  Lewis Loflin

The Babylonian Captivity and the subsequent return to Israel were seen as one of the pivotal events in the drama between God and His people: Israel. Just as they had been predestined for, and saved from, slavery in Egypt, the Israelites were predestined to be punished by God through the Babylonians, and then saved once more. The Babylonian Captivity had a number of serious effects on Judaism and the Jewish culture, including changes to the Hebrew alphabet and changes in the fundamental practices and customs of the Jewish religion.

This period saw the last high-point of Biblical prophecy in the person of Ezekiel, followed by the emergence of the central role of the Torah in Jewish life. This process coincided with the emergence of scribes and sages as Jewish leaders. Prior to exile, the people of Israel had been organized according to tribe; afterwards, they were organized by clans, with only the tribe of Levi continuing in its special role. After the Babylonian captivity, there were always sizable numbers of Jews living outside Eretz Israel, thus marking one starting point of the "Jewish diaspora."

During the period of captivity, Jews continued to practice and develop their religious traditions, many of which became distinct from their origins, due to the influences of the local culture.

After the overthrow of Babylonia by the Persian Empire, in 537 BC the Persian ruler Cyrus the Great gave the Jews permission to return to their native land, and more than 40,000 are said to have availed themselves of the privilege, as noted in the Biblical accounts of Ezra, and Nehemiah.

The Persians had a different political philosophy of managing conquered territories than the Babylonians or Assyrians: under the Persians, local personages were put into power to govern the local populace.

The actual return of the exiles was consummated by Ezra, who assembled at the river Ahava all those desirous of returning. These consisted of about 1,800 men, or 5,500 to 6,000 souls (Ezra viii.), besides 38 Levites and 220 slaves of the Temple from Casiphia.

With this body, which was invested with royal powers, Ezra and Nehemiah succeeded, after great difficulties, in establishing the post-exilic Jewish community. Some freed Jews went north and established themselves in the Altai area, eventually joining with a confederation of semi-nomadic Turk and Mongol tribes.

Prior to the return, the northern Israelite tribes had been taken captive by Assyria and never returned some claim, leaving the survivors of the Babylonian exile as the majority of the remaining Children of Israel. I question this myself.

A good clue to this is in the Bible. The fact is the Ten Tribes were never lost, it's a myth. While much of the story of Assyria is covered in 2 Kings, Ezekiel concerned the later Babylonians. Quoting Ezekiel 9:9, "Then said he unto me, The iniquity of the house of Israel and Judah is exceeding great, and the land is full of blood..." They still existed at that time together.

Jeremiah 50:33 concerning the Babylonian Captivity, "Thus saith the LORD of hosts; The children of Israel and the children of Judah were oppressed together: and all that took them captives held them fast; they refused to let them go." This was later fulfilled when the Persians crushed the Babylonians and allowed the Jews/Israel to return.

This undermines the absurd belief of Christian Identity and British Israelism that the "Ten Tribes" was the white Anglo-Saxons. See the following:

When the Israelites returned home, they found a mixture of peoples, the Samaritans, practicing a religion very similar, but not identical, to their own. Over time, hostility grew between the returning Jews and the Samaritans. According to the Bible, the Samaritans were foreign people settled into the area by the kings of Assyria and who had partially adopted the Israelite religion.

Although there are many other conflicting theories about the Samaritans' origins, many of them may have simply been Israelites who remained behind and thus had no part in the sweeping changes of the Israelite religion brought about among the captives.

Alternatively, perhaps the fierce purity of the Jewish religion and cultural identity of the Babylonian Jews returning from exile, seventy years after their deportation, completely eclipsed the partial fate of the mixed group of Israelite survivors, who had practiced paganism for hundreds of years in Israel (including the worship of a golden bull), and who had inter-married with the peoples sent into the territory by the Assyrians (a practice strictly forbidden by Mosaic laws, and punished by Nehemiah).

SIGNIFICANCE IN JUDAISM

The Babylonian Captivity and the subsequent return to Israel were seen as one of the pivotal events in the drama between God and His people: Israel. Just as they had been predestined for, and saved from, slavery in Egypt, the Israelites were predestined to be punished by God through the Babylonians, and then saved once more. The Babylonian Captivity had a number of serious effects on Judaism and the Jewish culture. For example, the current Hebrew script was adopted during this period, replacing the traditional Israelite script.

This period saw the last high-point of Biblical prophecy in the person of Ezekiel, followed by the emergence of the central role of the Torah in Jewish life; according to many historical-critical scholars, it was edited and redacted during this time, and saw the beginning of the canonization of the Bible, which provided a central text for Jews.

This process coincided with the emergence of scribes and sages as Jewish leaders. Prior to exile, the people of Israel had been organized according to tribe; afterwards, they were organized by clans, only the tribe of Levi continuing in its 'special role'. After this time, there were always sizable numbers of Jews living outside Eretz Israel; thus, it also marks the beginning of the "Jewish diaspora", unless this is considered to have begun with the Assyrian Captivity of Israel.

In Rabbinic literature, Babylon was one of a number of metaphors for the Jewish diaspora. Most frequently the term "Babylon" meant the diaspora prior to the destruction of the Second Temple. The post-destruction term for the Jewish Diaspora was "Rome," or "Edom."

Ref. Jewish Encyclopedia, Bible, textbooks, etc

BABYLONIAN EXILE
New World Encyclopedia

The Babylonian exile (or Babylonian captivity) is the name generally given to the deportation and exile of the Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah to Babylon by Nebuchadrezzar II. The Babylonian exile is distinguished from the earlier exile of citizens of the northern Kingdom of Israel to Assyria around 722 B.C.E. The exile in Babylon—which directly affected mainly those of the upper class of society—occurred in three waves from 597 to 581 B.C.E. as a result of Judean rebellions against Babylonian rule. The Bible portrays the internal cause of the captivity as the sins of Judah in failing to rid herself of idolatry and refusing to heed prophetic warnings not to rebel against Babylon.

While the Jews in Babylon did not suffer greatly in the physical sense, the siege and later sack of Jerusalem in 586 B.C.E., including the destruction of its sacred Temple, left many of the exiles deeply repentant and determined to keep their faith pure. After Cyrus the Great of Persia conquered Babylon, he allowed the exiles to return in 537 B.C.E. They came to Jerusalem with a tradition refined by the rise of the scribal profession, deeply committed to ethnic purity centering on the rebuilt Temple, and yet enriched by universalistic monotheistic values.

The Babylonian exile represents both one of Judaism's darkest hours and also the beginning of its history as an enduring universal religion that gave birth to the later monotheistic traditions of Christianity and Islam.

DEPORTATIONS

King Jehoiakim destroys the writings of the prophet Jeremiah, who had opposed the king's alliance with Egypt and urged cooperation with Babylon

The first deportation from Judah occurred in 597 B.C.E., as a result of the conquest of Jerusalem by Nebuchadrezzar II. The purpose of this action was to punish King Josiah's son Jehoiakim, once Babylon's vassal, for allying with Egypt and rebelling against Babylonian dominance (2 Kings 24:1). Against Babylon's superior forces, Jehoiakim retained no territory except Jerusalem when he died of natural causes. His son Jehoiachin, also called Jeconiah, continued to resist until he was forced to surrender after a reign of only three months. Nebuchadnezzar ordered him and the elite citizens of Judah deported, together with the most valuable treasures of the Temple and the palace (2 Kings 24 1-16). Among the captives was the prophet Ezekiel, though not Jeremiah, who remained in Jerusalem, where he counseled cooperation with Babylon.

Jeremiah advised those taken to Babylon to settle there peacefully, and not hope to return for at least 70 years. They were even to pray for Nebuchadrezzar, for he was God's instrument to punish Judah for her sins. He strongly urged those in Jerusalem to be patient and resist the urge to rebel. This advice was opposed forcefully by the prophet Hananaiah, who urged the new king, Zedekiah, to have faith that God would deliver Judah from the hand of its oppressor (Jer. 28).

Jeremiah's advice would ultimately go unheeded. Zedekiah, who, like his predecessor Jehoiakim, had taken the oath as a vassal of Nebuchadrezzar (Ezek. 17:13), rebelled. Nebuchadrezzar, reaching the end of his patience, began the siege of Jerusalem in January 587. He was soon forced to abandon the siege in order to face Zedekiah's Egyptian allies. After defeating them in battle, however, the Babylonian forces renewed their assault on Jerusalem, finally breaching its walls in July 586. Zedekiah and his court attempted to flee, but were captured. As punishment, he was forced to witness the death of his sons and then he was blinded. After this, the king was taken in chains to Babylon.

In August of the same year, while they watched with spiritual eyes in troubled visions from Babylon, Nebuchadrezzar’s captain, Nebuzaradan, supervised the destruction and burning of the Temple of Jerusalem, the royal palace, and virtually the entire city. Hundreds of the surviving inhabitants were deported to Babylon, but another 70-80 leading citizens, including the high priest Seraiah, were put to death (2 Kings 25, Jer. 34). A notable exception was the prophet Jeremiah, who was rightly viewed by the Babylonians as a vocal opponent of the rebellion.

Nebuchadrezzar appointed the collaborator Gedaliah to govern what remained of Judah from Mizpah. After seven months, however, Gedaliah was assassinated, and another rebellion broke out. Many Judeans escaped to Egypt during this time. Among them was Jeremiah, who apparently went very reluctantly after prophesying against such a course (Jer. 41-43). In retribution against the rebels, a third deportation was ordered by Nebuchadnezzar around 582-581 B.C.E.

NUMBERS AND CONDITIONS

According to the Book of Jeremiah (52:28-30), 3,023 Jews were deported in the first wave, 832 in the second, and 745 in the third, making 4,600 in all. However, it is likely that only the men were counted. Including women and children it is estimated that 14,000 to 18,000 people would be the full number. A larger estimate is given in 2 Kings 24:14-16, which refers only to the first deportation 597 B.C.E. Verse 14 gives the numbers as 10,000 men, while verse 16 puts the number at 8,000, an estimate roughly double that of Jeremiah's for all three deportations. Scholars tend to accept Jeremiah's figures as more accurate. In either case, since scholars estimate the total population of the Kingdom of Judah during this time at between 120,000 and 150,000, less than one quarter of the population was actually taken into exile. However, since this included a high percentage of court officials, the priesthood, skilled craftsmen, and other wealthy citizens, the exiles constituted majority of the cultural elite of nation.

Those who had been deported in 597 had hoped for a speedy return to their homes. They were encouraged in this hope by certain prophets among them, against whom Jeremiah and Ezekiel worked in vain (Jer. 29-29; Ezek. 18, 22). Although most lived in the environs of the great city of Babylon, it is not known whether they formed a close knit community or were scattered throughout the area. One of their places of dwelling was called Tel Aviv (Ezek. 1:3).

As exiles under royal protection, the deportees enjoyed special prerogatives. Indeed, their personal fortunes were undoubtedly better than those who remained behind. Jeremiah's communications with them (Jer. 24:5-7) indicate that that the exiles were permitted to engage in farming, to marry and raise families, buy property, and accumulate wealth. Aside from the issue of sacrifices, which could only be properly offered at the Temple of Jerusalem, they were apparently not hindered in the exercise of their religion. No bloody persecutions are reported.[1]

Nevertheless, it is clear from the writings of the Psalms and later prophets that that many of the exiles indeed felt themselves imprisoned and ill-treated. Psalm 137 expresses these sentiments eloquently:

By the rivers of Babylon we sat and wept when we remembered Zion.

There on the poplars we hung our harps, for there our captors asked us for songs

Our tormentors demanded songs of joy; they said, "Sing us one of the songs of Zion!"

How can we sing the songs of the Lord while in a foreign land?

If I forget you, O Jerusalem, may my right hand forget its skill.

May my tongue cling to the roof of my mouth if I do not remember you,

If I do not consider Jerusalem my highest joy.

Deutero-Isaiah[2] particularly expresses a sense of Israel's degradation as a result of her exile. It describes the nation as a helpless worm (Isa. 41:14) and speaks of her suffering in chains and bondage (42:20-24). These sufferings, however, are not to be understood literally. Rather, they represent the condition of homelessness and servitude to foreign rule, while the territory formerly promised to Israel by God and the holy city itself lay in ruins. Meanwhile, pagans and idolaters could scoff and point to the fall of Jerusalem and its Temple evidence of Yahweh's weakness of Israel's God.

RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL IMPACT

Many of the exiles, finding themselves in comfortable circumstances, assimilated into Babylonian society in ways that concerned the pious among them. Ezekiel denounced such men as "a rebellious house," and parts of the Book of Isaiah written during exilic times likewise expressed concern over the adoption of Babylonian traditions (Isa. 65:3). Some, however, maintained their faith and others responded to prophetic preaching of repentance (Ezek. 33:31).

Since the Temple was available neither for sacrifices nor festival celebrations, solemn days of penance and prayer commemorated Jerusalem's fall (Zech. 7:3-5, 8:19). The Sabbath took on new emphasis as a day of contemplation, prayer, and sacred rest. Circumcision, too, grew in significance as the special mark of the Israelites in the midst of a foreign people. The prophetic emphasis on works of morality and charity came to the fore, since the priestly functions were, for the moment at least, irrelevant. In response to those who feared that the "sins of the fathers" would be visited upon the sons for the full four generations promised by the Book of Deuteronomy (5:5), Ezekiel promised that "(The son) will not die for his father's sin; he will surely live. But his father will die for his own sin" (Ezek. 19:17-18). Deutoero-Isaiah, meanwhile, expanded the concept of God's special blessing on Israel to include the eventual recognition of Yahweh even by the Gentiles (Isa. 49:22)

The profession of the scribes, often themselves priests learned in the law, also grew in importance during the exile. A more modern Hebrew script was adopted during this period, replacing the traditional Israelite script. Historical writings were compiled and revised in accordance with the emerging priestly consensus, based especially on the historical conception expressed in the Book of Deuteronomy. In this view, the calamities that had befallen the people of Israel and Judah must be accepted by the exiles as a punishment for their sins, especially the sin of idolatry. At the same time, the hope was expressed that a resurrected Jewish people, a holy remnant risen from the grave of exile, would one day return to Jerusalem, rebuild the Temple, and once and for all live in accordance with the Law of Moses.

At the same time, the Jews' exposure to Babylonian literature and traditions served to broaden their viewpoint to include new concepts formerly not strongly evident in the literature of ancient Israel, among them:

The concept of Satan as God's adversary

The idea of an angelic hierarchy under God rather than the more ancient idea of an assembly of the gods with Yahweh/Elohim as the supreme deity

The idea of absolute monotheism, as opposed to the idea that Yahweh was the special god of Israel, but not necessarily the only God

The related idea of universalism: that not only the Jews, but all people, must honor God

The Jews were also apparently influenced by the wisdom literature of Babylon, expressing a less black-and-white approach to the concept of spiritual wisdom—as expressed for example in the Book of Proverbs with its promises of blessings to righteous and suffering to the wicked. The newer type of wisdom literature expressed a more nuanced and realistic viewpoint, some might even say skeptical, as exemplified by Ecclesiastes and Job.

Finally, some scholars opine that the Babylonian tradition may even have influenced the origin story of Genesis 1, which mythologists believe to be a reworking of the Babylonian cosmology portrayed in the Enuma Elish.

THE RETURN

After the overthrow of Babylon by the Persians, Cyrus instituted a major shift in religious policy, encouraging the priests who had been forced into exile by his predecessors to return to their native lands, install captured religious icons in their proper temples, and minister to the spiritual needs of the peoples. He thus gave the Jews permission to return to Jerusalem in 537 B.C.E. The Book of Ezra reports that 42,360 availed themselves of the privilege, including women, children and slaves, finally completing a long and dreary journey of four months from the banks of the Euphrates to Jerusalem.

Under the Babylonian-appointed governor Zerubbabel, chosen in part because of his Davidic lineage, the Temple foundation would soon be laid, and—just as important—the sacrificial rituals were once against offered. The returning exiles poured their gifts into the sacred treasury with great enthusiasm (Ezra 2). They erected and dedicated the altar of God on the exact spot where it had formerly stood and cleared away the charred heaps of debris which occupied the site. In 535 B.C.E., among great public excitement, the foundations of the second temple were laid. However, its poor appearance was regarded with mingled feelings by the spectators (Haggai 2:3).

Seven years after this Cyrus the Great died (2 Chron. 36:22-23). Mistrust of the non-Jewish populations and various political intrigues caused the rebuilding to cease for a time, but under Darius I of Persia, the work was resumed and carried forward to its completion (Ezra 5:6-6:15). It was ready for consecration in the spring of 516 B.C.E., more than 20 years after the return from captivity.

JEWS AND SAMARITANS

When the Jews[3] returned home, they found a mixture of peoples practicing a religion very similar to their own. These people, who came to be known as Samaritans, worshiped Yahweh and honored the Law of Moses as they understood it, but many had intermarried with non-Israelite peoples who had immigrated to Judah and Israel in the wake of the Assyrian and Babylonian policy of forcing conquered peoples into exile. Moreover, some of them had established altars and were offering sacrifices outside of Jerusalem, considered a sin by the spiritual leaders of the exiles.

Zerubbabel and the Jewish elders therefore rebuffed offers from the local inhabitants to help rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem. Ezra and Nehemiah even went so far as to require those who had intermarried to divorce their foreign wives and disown their children in order to be included in the assembly of the Jews. Hostility grew between the returning Jews and the Samaritans. For much of the period from this point until the Common Era, Judea remained a smaller and less influential province than did its northern neighbor, Samaria.

LASTING IMPACT

Nevertheless, once the Temple of Jerusalem was rebuilt, it became the rallying point of the Jewish people, spawning a tradition which, unlike its Samaritan counterpart, has survived with a large worldwide following into the current era. The paradoxical combination of ethnic purity and universalism that evolved during the Babylonian exile resulted in a religious spirit that survived both the later expulsions of Jews from Jerusalem and their being scattered throughout the world for the last two millennia. The tradition of Jewish ethical monotheism also inspired two other world religions: Christianity and Islam. It may be one of history's great ironies—or perhaps one should say one of God's most dramatic twists of fate—that out of Israel's most tragic moment, its lasting legacy would be born.

NOTES

↑ Exceptions may be noted in the Book of Daniel, which portrays Nebuchadrezzar as persecuting certain Jews. However, the historicity of this account is questioned.

↑ Deutero-Isaiah is the name give to author(s) of those parts of the Book of Isaiah believed to have been written during the Babylonian Exile and later included as part of Isaiah's work.

↑ From this point on, we may truly speak of "Jews" rather than "Israelites," since the basic precepts and tradition of Judaism were now firmly in place.

REFERENCES

Cahill, Thomas. The Gifts of the Jews: How a Tribe of Desert Nomads Changed the Way Everyone Thinks and Feels. New York: Anchor Books, 1999. ISBN 978-0385482493

Grayzel, Solomon. A History of the Jews: From the Babylonian Exile to the Present. Jewish Publication Society, 1968. ISBN 978-0999163368

Johnson, Paul. A History of the Jews. Harper Perennial; Reprint edition, 1988. ISBN 978-0060915339

LINKS

The Babylonian Captivity and its Consequences    Vanderbillt University

 

      The Lost Tribes of Israel

4,000 Years

The Temples
of Israel

Videos  
Temples

The Synagogue

Videos
Synagogues

The
Babylonian Exile
and the
Jewish Religion