T O P I C
CLICK BUTTON TO GO TO SECTION
According to the Old Testament Jacob had twelve sons and at least one daughter by two wives and two concubines.
After the Exodus from Egypt under Moses the Jews under Joshua conquered Israel which was divided between the tribes. The tribes of Levi and Simeon only received cities with surrounding open space. Jacob elevated his grandsons Ephraim and Manasseh, the two sons of Joseph by his Egyptian wife Asenath, to the status of full tribes so replacing the single Tribe of Joseph.
For more detail see www.ebibleteacher.com
the Kingdom of Israel in the North
and Judah in the South
After his death Solomon's son Rehoboam increased taxes and provoked a rebellion of the ten northern tribes. They elected Jeroboam as their King and chose Tirzah near Shechem as their new capital . This was the beginning of the two kingdoms:
Israel in the north had a swift succession of ten dynasties. In 721 BCE it became an Assyrian province and its population was deported. They are now called the ‘Lost Tribes’.
Details of Groups claiming descent from the Lost Tribes are shown below.
Jerusalem, the capital of the Kingdom of Judah in the south continued until 587/586, when it was conquered by the Babylonians who destroyed it. Later, the Persian kings permitted captive Jews to return from Babylonia, rebuild their temple and the walls of Jerusalem. They are the ancestors of modern Jewry.
For more detail see The Jewish Encyclopedia
map from Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs
THE TWO KINGDOMS (C.920 BCE - 597 BCE)
The experiment with the opulence and power of the great eastern kingdoms ended in disaster for Israel. King Solomon created the wealthiest and most powerful central government the Hebrews would ever see, but he did so at an impossibly high cost. Land was given away to pay for his extravagances and people were sent into forced labor into Tyre in the north. When Solomon died, between 926 and 922 BCE, the ten northern tribes refused to submit to his son, Rehoboam, and revolted.
From this point on, there would be two kingdoms of Hebrews: in the north - Israel, and in the south - Judah. The Israelites formed their capital in the city of Samaria, and the Judaeans kept their capital in Jerusalem. These kingdoms remained separate states for over two hundred years.
The history of the both kingdoms is a litany of ineffective, disobedient, and corrupt kings. When the Hebrews had first asked for a king, in the book of Judges, they were told that only God was their king. When they approached Samuel the Prophet, he told them the desire for a king was an act of disobedience and that they would pay dearly if they established a monarchy. The history told in the Hebrew book, Kings, bears out Samuel's warning.
The Hebrew empire eventually collapses, Moab successfully revolts against Judah, and Ammon successfully secedes from Israel. Within a century of Solomon's death, the kingdoms of Israel and Judah were left as tiny little states - no bigger than Connecticut - on the larger map of the Middle East.
As history proved time and again in the region, tiny states never survived long. Located directly between the Mesopotamian kingdoms in the northeast and powerful Egypt in the southwest, the Hebrew Kingdoms were of the utmost commercial and military importance to all these warring powers. Being small was a liability.
In 722 BC, the Assyrians conquered Israel. The Assyrians were aggressive and effective; the history of their dominance over the Middle East is a history of constant warfare. In order to assure that conquered territories would remain pacified, the Assyrians would force many of the native inhabitants to relocate to other parts of their empire. They almost always chose the upper and more powerful classes, for they had no reason to fear the general mass of a population. They would then send Assyrians to relocate in the conquered territory.
When they conquered Israel, they forced the ten tribes to scatter throughout their empire. For all practical purposes, you might consider this a proto-Diaspora ("diaspora"="scattering"), except that these Israelites disappear from history permanently; they are called "the ten lost tribes of Israel." Why this happened is difficult to assess. The Assyrians did not settle the Israelites in one place, but scattered them in small populations all over the Middle East. When the Babylonians later conquered Judah, they, too, relocate a massive amount of the population. However, they move that population to a single location so that the Jews can set up a separate community and still retain their religion and identity. The Israelites deported by the Assyrians, however, do not live in separate communities and soon drop their Yahweh religion and their Hebrew names and identities.
One other consequence of the Assyrian invasion of Israel involved the settling of Israel by Assyrians. This group settled in the capital of Israel, Samaria, and they took with them Assyrian gods and cultic practices. But the people of the Middle East were above everything else highly superstitious. Even the Hebrews didn't necessarily deny the existence or power of other peoples' gods—just in case. Conquering peoples constantly feared that the local gods would wreak vengeance on them. Therefore, they would adopt the local god or gods into their religion and cultic practices.
Within a short time, the Assyrians in Samaria were worshipping Yahweh as well as their own gods; within a couple centuries, they would be worshipping Yahweh exclusively. Thus was formed the only major schism in the Yahweh religion: the schism between the Jews and the Samaritans. The Samaritans, who were Assyrian and therefore non-Hebrew, adopted almost all of the Hebrew Torah and cultic practices; unlike the Jews, however, they believed that they could sacrifice to God outside of the temple in Jerusalem. The Jews frowned on the Samaritans, denying that a non-Hebrew had any right to be included among the chosen people and angered that the Samaritans would dare to sacrifice to Yahweh outside of Jerusalem. The Samaritan schism played a major role in the rhetoric of Jesus of Nazareth; and there are still Samaritans alive today around the city of Samaria.
"There but for the grace of god go I." Certainly, the conquest of Israel scared the people and monarchs of Judah. They barely escaped the Assyrian menace, but Judah would be conquered by the Chaldeans about a century later. In 701 BCE, the Assyrian Sennacherib would gain territory from Judah, and the Jews would have suffered the same fate as the Israelites. But by 625 BCE, the Babylonians, under Nabopolassar, would reassert control over Mesopotamia, and the Jewish king Josiah aggressively sought to extend his territory in the power vacuum that resulted. But Judah soon fell victim to the power struggles between Assyrians, Babylonians, and Egyptians. When Josiah's son, Jehoahaz, became king, the king of Egypt, Necho (put into power by the Assyrians), rushed into Judah and deposed him, and Judah became a tribute state of Egypt. When the Babylonians defeated the Egyptians in 605 BCE, then Judah became a tribute state to Babylon. But when the Babylonians suffered a defeat in 601 BCE, the king of Judah, Jehoiakim, defected to the Egyptians. So the Babylonian king, Nebuchadnezzar, raised an expedition to punish Judah in 597 BCE. The new king of Judah, Jehoiachin, handed the city of Jerusalem over to Nebuchadnezzar, who then appointed a new king over Judah, Zedekiah. In line with Mesopotamian practice, Nebuchadnezzar deported around 10,000 Jews to his capital in Babylon; all the deportees were drawn from professionals, the wealthy, and craftsmen. Ordinary people were allowed to stay in Judah. This deportation was the beginning of the Exile.
The story should have ended there. However, Zedekiah defected from the Babylonians one more time. Nebuchadnezzar responded with another expedition in 588 BCE and conquered Jerusalem in 586 BCE. Nebuchadnezzar caught Zedekiah and forced him to watch the murder of his sons; then he blinded him and deported him to Babylon. Again, Nebuchadnezzr deported the prominent citizens, but the number was far smaller than in 597 BCE: somewhere between 832 and 1577 people were deported.
The Hebrew kingdom, started with such promise and glory by David, was now at an end. It would never appear again, except for a brief time in the second century BCE, and to the Jews forced to relocate and the Jews left to scratch out a living in their once proud kingdom, it seemed as if no Jewish nation would ever exist again. It also seemed as if the special bond that Yahweh had promised to the Hebrews, the covenant that the Hebrews would serve a special place in history, had been broken and forgotten by their god. This period of confusion and despair, a community together but homeless in the streets of Babylon, makes up one of the most significant historical periods in Jewish history: the Exile.
THE EXILE FROM JUDAH AND RETURN
According to the book of Ezra, the Persian Cyrus the Great ended the exile in 538 BCE, the year after he captured Babylon. The exile ended with the return under Zerubbabel the Prince (so-called because he was a descendant of the royal line of David) and Joshua the Priest (a descendant of the line of the former High Priests of the Temple) and their construction of the Second Temple in the period 521–516 BCE.
In the Hebrew Bible, the captivity in Babylon is presented as a punishment for idolatry and disobedience to Yahweh in a similar way to the presentation of Israelite slavery in Egypt followed by deliverance. The Babylonian Captivity had a number of serious effects on Judaism and Jewish culture. For example, the current Hebrew alphabet was adopted during this period, replacing the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet.
This period saw the last high-point of biblical prophecy in the person of Ezekiel, followed by the emergence of the central role of the Torah in Jewish life. According to many historical-critical scholars, the Torah was redacted during this time, and began to be regarded as the authoritative text for Jews. This period saw their transformation into an ethno-religious group who could survive without a central Temple (see Ezra and the Compilation of the Pentateuch).
This process coincided with the emergence of scribes and sages as Jewish leaders. Prior to exile, the people of Israel had been organized according to tribe. Afterwards, they were organized by smaller family groups. Only the tribe of Levi continued in its temple role after the return. After this time, there were always sizable numbers of Jews living outside Eretz Israel; thus, it also marks the beginning of the "Jewish diaspora", unless this is considered to have begun with the Assyrian Captivity of Israel.
In Rabbinic literature, Babylon was one of a number of metaphors for the Jewish diaspora. Most frequently the term "Babylon" meant the diaspora prior to the destruction of the Second Temple. The post-destruction term for the Jewish Diaspora was "Rome", or "Edom".
EFFECTS OF THE BABYLONIAN EXILE ON THE JEWISH RELIGION
The reading of the Torah became central to Judaism during the Babylonian Exile.
The Babylonian Exile is the period of Jewish history in which the people of Judea were forced to leave their historic homeland and were relocated to other parts of the Babylonian Empire. Historians place the beginning of the Babylonian Exile between 588 and 586 B.C. Like most ancient Middle Eastern people, the Jews' religious identity had been tied to their homeland. The exile brought about a number of significant changes to the way Judaism was practiced. Many of these changes still affect Judaism.
The Temple and the Synagogue
Before the Babylonian exile, Jewish religious life revolved around the Temple in Jerusalem. When the Babylonians expelled the Jews from Judea, they destroyed the Temple completely. Jewish law stipulated that certain important aspects of Jewish religious life -- most notably animal sacrifice -- could only be performed at the Temple in Jerusalem. Since the Jews now lacked both a temple and the ability to go to Jerusalem, changes were needed to retain their cultural and religious identity. The result was the rise of the synagogue among the Jews dispersed throughout the Babylonian Empire. The focus shifted from animal sacrifices, which could only be properly performed at the Temple, to the study and teaching of the Torah -- the Jewish Bible -- which became the focal point of worship in the synagogues.
This new focus gave rise to a new class of professional clergy within Judaism, the rabbi. The rabbi was and is both a scholar and a teacher, a spiritual leader tasked with explaining God's expectations to the common people. Early rabbis compiled the Talmud, a series of writings that further explain the Torah. Additionally, the biblical books of Daniel and Esther were written during the Babylonian captivity. The books of Ezra and Nehemiah detail the end of the exile. They describe the overthrow of the Babylonian Empire by the Persian Empire, the subsequent return of many of the Jews to Judea and the rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem.
Influence on Jewish Worship
Even after the Temple was rebuilt, many aspects of Jewish worship that began during the captivity continued as part of Jewish worship. These include the prominent use of the singing of Psalms, prayer and instruction as part of the synagogue service. Synagogue worship and rabbinical teaching continued to operate alongside the newly constructed Temple. For almost seven centuries, Jews came to Jerusalem to participate in the worship, sacrifices and other activities carried on at the Temple, while also engaging in worship in synagogues wherever Jewish communities existed. (From Wikipedia A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced /ˈsɪnəɡɒɡ/ from Greek συναγωγή, synagogē, "assembly", Hebrew: בית כנסת Bet Kenesset, "house of assembly" or בית תפילה Bet Tefila, "house of prayer", שול shul, אסנוגה esnoga or קהל kahal), is a Jewish house of prayer.
Synagogues have a large hall for prayer (the main sanctuary), and may also have smaller rooms for study and sometimes a social hall and offices. Some have a separate room for Torah study, called the Beith Midrash (Sefaradi) "beis medrash (Ashkenazi)—בית מדרש ("House of Study").
Synagogues are consecrated spaces used for the purpose of prayer, Torah reading, study and assembly; however a synagogue is not necessary for worship. Halakha holds that communal Jewish worship can be carried out wherever ten Jews (a minyan) assemble. Worship can also be carried out alone or with fewer than ten people assembled together. However, Halakha considers certain prayers as communal prayers and therefore they may be recited only by a minyan. The synagogue does not replace the long-since destroyed Temple in Jerusalem.
Israelis use the Hebrew term Beyt Knesset (house of assembly). Jews of Ashkenazi descent have traditionally used the Yiddish term shul (cognate with the German Schule, "school") in everyday speech. Sephardi Jews and Romaniote Jews generally use the term kal (from the Hebrew Ḳahal, meaning "community"). Spanish Jews call the synagogue a sinagoga and Portuguese Jews call it an esnoga. Persian Jews and some Karaite Jews also use the non-Hebrew term kenesa, which is derived from Aramaic, and some Arab Jews use kenis. Reform and some Conservative Jews use the word temple. The Greek word synagogue is used in English (and German and French), to cover the preceding possibilities.)
Why There's No Temple Today
When the Romans sacked Jerusalem in A.D. 70, they also destroyed the Temple and expelled the Jews from Jerusalem. With the Temple again destroyed, synagogue worship again became the norm for Jewish people and continues to be so to this day. This is in part because the Muslim Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa mosque are on the site whereJewish law stipulates the Temple was to stand, effectively preventing the Temple from being rebuilt.
Monolateralism and Monotheism
Many scholars believe that the Jewish religion was monolateral before the Babylonian Exile. Simply put, that means that the Jewish people acknowledged the existence of other gods, but believed that they should only worship the god of Israel. At the time the Persian Empire overthrew the Babylonians, many of the Persians practiced Zoroastrianism, a monotheistic religion that worshiped a deity named Ahura-Mazda. Zoroastrianism went beyond monolateralism, insisting that only one god exists. Whether the concept came to Judaism through Zoroastrians or not, the teaching -- known as monotheism -- is now the central tenet of Judaism.
The hidden existence, or future public return of these tribes, is based on written religious tradition and/or speculation. A belief has persisted that one day they would be found. Eldad ha-Dani, for instance, a 9th-century Jewish traveller, reported locating the tribes “beyond the rivers of Abyssinia” on the far side of an impassable river called Sambation, a roaring torrent of stones that becomes subdued only on the sabbath, when Jews are not permitted to travel. Manasseh ben Israel (1604–57) used this legend in pleading for the admission of Jews into England. Many groups claim to be descended from the lost tribes. Listings from three sources are shown below. Click here for Videos
GROUPS CLAIMING DESCENT FROM THE LOST TRIBES
Many groups claim descent from specific Lost Tribes but preliminary scientific evidence such as Y-DNA testing, specifically Haplogroup J,
4.1 Bene Ephraim of
4.2 Nasranis of Kerala
4.3 Bene Israel of South Asia
4.4 Bnei Menashe of India
4.5 Beta Israel of Ethiopia
4.6 Bukharian Jews of
4.7 Persian Jews
4.8 Igbo Jews of Africa
5 Groups claiming descent from a non-specific Lost Tribe
Some groups believe they are descended from one of the Lost Tribes, but don't know which one. These include:
5.1 Lemba people of Africa
5.2 Pashtuns of the
5.2.1 Origin theories
5.3 Chiang Min people of
5.4 Kaifeng Jews
5.5 Bedul, Petra
6 Speculation regarding
6.1 Scythian / Cimmerian Theories
6.1.1 British Israelism variant
6.1.2 Brit-Am variant
6.1.3 Other variants
6.5 Native Americans
6.6 General dispersions,
6.7 Nathan Ausubel's list
7 Other traditions
7.1 Latter-day Saints
Arabia, India, and Abyssinia.
Cave Dwellers of the Atlas Mountains south of Tripolitania and Tunisia. Closely related to the Jews of the Sahara,
The Falashas = Lake Tana, Ethiopia.
The Samaritans of Nablus (Shechem).
Shavei Israel (Hebrew: שבי ישראל, Israel Returns) is an Israeli-based Jewish organization that locates "lost Jews" and assists them in returning (Hebrew "teshuva" תשובה) to Judaism. It
* comprises a team of academics, educators and rabbinical figures who reach out to “lost Jews” and assist them in coming to terms with their heritage and identity in a spirit of tolerance and understanding.
* was founded by Michael Freund with the support of rabbinical authorities in Israel and the United States of America
* extends a helping hand to all members of our extended Jewish family and to all who seek to rediscover or renew their link with the people of Israel.
SHAVEI ISRAEL FOCUS IS ON:
• The descendants of anousim (crypto-Jews in Spain, Portugal, South America and elsewhere);
• The descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel (such as the Bnei Menashe of India);
• Subbotniks (descendants of a Russian group who converted to Judaism);
• Kaifeng Jews (descendants of an assimilated Chinese community);
• Hidden Jews from Poland (descendants of Jews adopted by Catholic families during the Second World War or Jews who hid their Judaism during the communist era);
• Jews from the Amazon who were descendants of assimilated Moroccan Jews who came as traders.
• Inca Jews who are Peruvians from the Inca area of Peru who converted to Judaism
• San Nicandro. An Italian community who converted to Judaism. Today most of them live in Israel though San Nicandro still a women's community.
• Descendants of assimilated Jews who wish to rekindle their connection to Judaism and the Jewish people;
• Anyone touched by the spark of Judaism and is sincerely considering conversion and requires assistance so helping anyone wishing to return to the Jewish people
* Abayudaya (Uganda)
* Uganda (see Abayudaya)
When you do the math you will actually count 13 tribes of Israel. The list contains two tribes (Ephraim and Menasseh) that are descended from Joseph and therefore Joseph is not counted as a tribe even though he was a son of Jacob and brother to the other tribes. That still leaves 13. The tribe of Levi was a priestly tribe and did not receive a portion of the land when they came to the land of Israel (Canaan).
Tribes of Israel
Jacob had 12 sons that produced the 13 tribes.
The 12 tribes that founded Israel.
*Split and became Judah
More information on the history of the 12 Tribes go to