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GO TO TIMELINE FOR DETAILS FROM THE Jewish Historical Society of England


EDWARD I EXPELLS THE JEWS FROM ENGLAND (1290)
historyofinformation.com

In 1290 King Edward I of England (Longshanks)Offsite Link issued an edict expelling all Jews from England.

Lasting for the rest of the Middle Ages, it would be over 350 years until it was formally overturned in 1656. The edict was not an isolated incident but the culmination of over 200 years of conflict on the matters of usury. The first Jewish communities of significant size came to England with William the ConquerorOffsite Link in 1066. On the conquest of England, William instituted a feudal system in the country, whereby all estates formally belonged to the king, who appointed lords over vast estates, subject to duties and obligations (financial and knights) to the king. Under the lords were further subjects such as serfs, which were bound and obligated to their lords. Merchants had a special status in the system as did Jews. Jews were declared to be direct subjects of the King, unlike the rest of the population. This had advantages for Jews, in that they were not tied to any particular lord, but were subject to the whims of the king. Every successive King formally reviewed a royal charter granting Jews the right to remain in England. Jews did not enjoy any of the guarantees of Magna Carta of 1215.

Economically, Jews played a key role in the country. The church at the time strictly forbade usury, or the lending of money for profit. This left a hole in the heart of the European economy that Jews quickly filled (canon law was not considered to apply to Jews, and Judaism permits loans with interest Offsite Linkbetween Jews and non-Jews).  As a consequence, some Jews made large amounts of money. However, taking advantage of their unique status as his direct subjects, the King could expropriate Jewish assets in the form of taxation. He levied heavy taxes on Jews at will without having to summon Parliament.  The Jewish community acted as a kind of giant monetary filter: Jews collected interest on money loaned to the people which the King could take at his pleasure.

Jews acquired a reputation as extortionate money lenders which made them extremely unpopular with both the Church and the general public. While antisemitism was widespread in Europe, medieval England was particularly antisemitic. An image of the Jew as a diabolical figure who hated Christ started to become widespread, and antisemitic myths such as the Wandering Jew and ritual murders originated and spread throughout England; as well as Scotland and Wales.  Jews were said to hunt for children to murder before Passover so they could use their blood to make matzah. Antisemitism on a number of occasions sparked riots where many Jews were murdered, most famously in 1190 when over a hundred Jews were massacred in the city of York.

The situation only got worse for Jews as the 13th century progressed. In 1218, England became the first European nation to require Jews to wear a marking badge. Taxation grew increasingly intense. Between 1219 and 1272, 49 levies were imposed on Jews for a total of 200,000 marks, a huge amount of money.  The first major step towards expulsion took place in 1275, with the Statute of Jewry. The statute outlawed all usury and gave Jews fifteen years to readjust. However, guilds as well as popular prejudice made Jewish movement into mercantile or agricultural pursuits almost impossible.

While in Gascony in 1287, Edward ordered English Jews expelled. All their property was seized by the crown and all outstanding debts payable to Jews were transferred to the King’s name. It was a bleak sign of things to come. Edward’s personal views on Jews are something of a mystery. In the glimpses we have of his dealings with them, he seems interested but unsympathetic. His mother, however, does seem to have been anti-semitic. Whatever his personal feelings, by the time he returned to England in 1289 Edward was deeply in debt. The next summer he summoned his knights to impose a steep tax. To make the tax more palatable, Edward in exchange essentially offered to expel all Jews. The heavy tax was passed, and three days later, on July 18, the Edict of Expulsion was issued. One official reason for the expulsion was that Jews had neglected to follow the Statute of Jewry. The edict of expulsion was widely popular and met with little resistance, and the expulsion was quickly carried out.

The Jewish population in England at the time was relatively small. While population estimates vary, probably less than 1% of England was Jewish; perhaps 3,000 people.  The expulsion process went fairly smoothly, although there were a few horrific stories. One story told of a captain taking a ship full of Jews to the Thames while the tide was going out and convincing them to go out for a walk with him. He then lost them and made it back to his ship before the tide came back in, leaving them all to drown. Other stories exist of Jews being robbed or killed, but the majority of the Jews seem to have crossed the channel in safety" (Wikipedia article on Edict of Expulsion, accessed 02-15-2009).

BLOOD LIBEL
Rational Wiki    

The blood libel is an old anti-Semitic trope that claims that Jews use the blood of Christian (or, sometimes, Muslim) children to make their Passover matzo. While generally discarded in modern times in favor of "Jews rule the world" conspiracy theories, the blood libel is still propagated in some Islamic countries and is occasionally still believed even by Western anti-Semites. The consequence of the blood libel myth could be in fact bloody for Jewish populations, as they could result in a pogrom.

Blood libels against non-Jews have also been known to occur. Early Christians were frequently libeled as practitioners of cannibalism.

History

This incredible canard began in the first century when it was claimed — without proof — that the Jews carried out human sacrifice in the temple (the Bible and Jewish oral traditions make it pretty clear that the acceptable animals were certain birds, cattle, and goats). The first occurrence of the idea in Western Europe was that the supposed murder in 1144 of William of Norwich in England, which resulted in the Jews being banned from that country until 1655.

The most famous blood libel is known as the Damascus blood libel of 1840.The notoriety generated by this case was so widespread that Martin Van Buren wrote a letter of protest on behalf of the United States to the Ottoman officials running Syria at the time.

SPECIFIC CASES

Although there have been many cases of blood libel, some are more infamous — and in some ways, more significant — than others.

William of Norwich (England, 1144)

On 22 March 1144 (Gregorian calendar: 29 March), two days before Good Friday, 12-year-old William disappeared from the town of Norwich. On Saturday, his body was found in Thorpe Wood outside of town. The boy was believed to have been tortured. There was not enough evidence to identify a killer, so the local sheriff made no arrests. The men of the town blamed the local small community of Jews, whom they tried to lynch. The local sheriff was forced to intervene on the Jews' behalf. This was the earliest known blood libel in English history. Over the next 25 years, a local monk wrote a seven-volume tome titled The Life and Miracles of William of Norwich in an effort to get the boy canonized. (Other locals hoped he would be canonized because it would draw pilgrims to the town.) He never was, but that didn't stop many anti-Semites from calling him "Saint William of Norwich". His feast day is March 26, but his cult and his feast are officially suppressed.

Hugh of Lincoln (England, 1255)

On 31 July 1255 (Gregorian calendar: 7 August), a young boy named Hugh, who seems to have been the illegitimate son of a woman named Beatrice, disappeared in the town of Lincoln. His body was found about a month later in the well of a Jew who has been identified by the names Copin, Kopin, Jopin and Joscefin. A priest who was present when the body was found offered Copin clemency if he confessed and implicated other Jews.[3][4] Wikipedia claims that Copin was tortured into confessing.[5] Either way, Copin did confess to crucifying the boy and implicated other local Jews in the murder. Unfortunately for Copin and successive generations of British Jews, these events occurred at the worst possible time.

Under English law of the time, the monarch could claim all English Jews as property of the crown. This allowed the monarch to tax Jews at a higher rate than English Christians. Earlier that year, King Henry III had sold his rights to English Jewry to his younger brother, Richard Earl of Cornwall. However, the king could still claim the property of any Jew who was guilty of a felony. In September, Henry arrived in Lincoln and revoked Copin's clemency. He then had Copin tied to a horse and dragged around the town, after which Copin was summarily hanged. Afterwards, eighteen other Jews were hanged in Lincoln, while another 90 to 100 were taken to the Tower of London where about 20 more were executed and their properties were claimed by the crown. Richard, who would be elected King of Germany (aka, "King of the Romans") the following year, exercised his right as their "owner" and pardoned the rest.

The exact year of the boy's canonization is not easily found. It's possible that, like WIlliam of Norwich, his "canonization" as a martyr was actually a local tradition and not an official investiture by the pope. His cult and feast day, July 27, are also suppressed.

Claims were made that while the boy was interred at his local church in Lincoln, many miracles occurred. Others claimed that he was thrown into Copin's well because God would not allow the boy's body to remain covered by the earth. (Alleged miracles are the most important factor for fast-tracking somebody to sainthood.) His body was exhumed and reinterred at Lincoln Cathedral. Ironically, this cathedral was an indirect reason why the boy is called "Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln." In 1185, the cathedral was badly damaged by an earthquake. Efforts by the local archbishop, Hugh of Lincoln, quickly reenergized the construction of the cathedral. The elder Saint Hugh of Lincoln was canonized by Pope Honorius III in 1220.

Legitimate or not, the sainthood of Little Hugh led to centuries of blood libels in the Lincoln area and elsewhere in England. In 1955, the Church of England placed a plaque over his shrine decrying the centuries of anti-semitism that resulted from his death.


“”By the remains of the shrine of "Little St. Hugh"

Trumped up stories of "ritual murders" of Christian boys by

Jewish communities were common throughout Europe during the

Middle Ages and even much later. These fictions cost many

innocent Jews their lives. Lincoln had its own legend, and the

alleged victim was buried in the Cathedral in the year 1255.


Such stories do not redound to the credit of Christendom,

and so we pray:


Lord, forgive what we have been,

amend what we are,

and direct what we shall be.

—Text of the plaque

Today, police detectives would probably look to Beatrice and possibly her friends as the chief suspects, as she was the one who found her son in the well (after allegedly receiving a tip from Hugh's friends), and then led the priest and others there. Conspiracy theorists would probably wonder if King Henry III had somebody kill the boy so that the ensuing blood libels would allow him to reclaim English Jews as his "property" from Richard.

Little Saint Hugh has been referenced many times in English popular culture. One of the earliest references was in "The Prioress's Tale" in The Canterbury Tales, written about a century after the Jews were officially expelled from in England in 1290. There would not be another Jewish community established in England until 1656 during the rule of Oliver Cromwell.

THEOLOGY

The whole idea is theologically nonsense, as kashrut strictly forbids the consumption of blood in any form. Furthermore, kashrut limits acceptable mammals to even-toed ungulates that chew cud, which humans are not, except in some parts of America. The only Jewish ritual that involves blood is circumcision, because obviously people tend to bleed when parts of their bodies are cut.

TODAY

While it is perhaps possible to understand how super-superstitious people living in the 12th century might have fallen prey to this ridiculous libel, what is not so easy to understand is how (supposedly) educated people in the 21st century can believe it. Some Jewish groups contend that the meme does show up in different forms. For example, a poster protesting Israeli policies once used "canned baby meat" with a "made in Israel" label.

It is perhaps a measure of the ridiculousness of this belief that Metapedia — that home of homophobia, racism and denialism — believes it. It also continues to persist in the Arab world, as evidenced by the popularity of Matzo of Zion, a book upholding the truthfulness of a Syrian blood libel from the 19th century.

In July 2009, another meme related to blood libel went viral after five New Jersey rabbis were among 44 suspects arrested for money laundering. Anti-Semites began claiming that the rabbis were really indicted for trafficking human body parts on the black market. In 2011, Sarah Palin referred to criticism of conservatives on their failure to accept gun control as "blood libel," even when no one was being accused of eating babies. Making this instance several orders of magnitude more heinous was that it came in the wake of the attempted assassination of Rep. Gabrielle Giffords - who is Jewish.

It was of course inevitable that when changing times moved the "Evil Foreign Religion" stigma from Judaism to Islam, the Blood Libel would eventually follow. In late 2013, a Turkish-German orthodox nun came forward with the claim that Muslims were killing Christians in Syria and selling their blood so other Muslims could wash their hands in infidel blood.

SEE ALSO CHRISTIANS

RESETTLEMENT PERIOD, 1655–1800s
Wikipedia

Toward the middle of the 17th century a considerable number of Marrano merchants settled in London and formed there a secret congregation, at the head of which was Antonio Fernandez Carvajal and Samuel Maylott, a French merchant, who has many descendants in England. They conducted a large business with the Levant, East and West Indies, Canary Islands, and Brazil, and above all with the Netherlands and Spain.

RESETTLEMENT, 1655

Bevis Marks Synagogue, the first synagogue of Spanish-Portuguese Jews, completed 1701, oldest synagogue in the UK, was built by the first generation of readmitted Jews to England

In the 1650s, Menasseh Ben Israel, a rabbi and leader of the Dutch Jewish community, approached Oliver Cromwell with the proposition that Jews should at long-last be readmitted to England. Cromwell agreed, and although he could not compel a council called for the purpose in December 1655 to consent formally to readmission, he made it clear that the ban on Jews would no longer be enforced. In the years 1655–56, the controversy over the readmission of Jews was fought out in a pamphlet war. The issue divided religious radicals and more conservative elements within society. The Puritan William Prynne was vehemently opposed to permitting Jews to return, the Quaker Margaret Fell no less passionately in favour, like John Wemyss, a minister of the Church of Scotland. In the end, Jews were readmitted in 1655, and, by 1690, about 400 Jews had settled in England.

1700s

Jew Bill of 1753

The Jewish Naturalisation Act received royal assent on 7 July 1753 but was repealed in 1754 due to widespread opposition to its provisions.

(The Jewish Naturalisation Act 1753 was an Act of Parliament (26 Geo. 2, c. 26) of the Parliament of Great Britain, which received royal assent on 7 July 1753 but was repealed in 1754 (27 Geo 2, c. 1) due to widespread opposition to its provisions.[1]

During the Jacobite rising of 1745, the Jews had shown particular loyalty to the government. Their chief financier, Sampson Gideon, had strengthened the stock market, and several of the younger members had volunteered in the corps raised to defend London. Possibly as a reward, Henry Pelham in 1753 brought in the Jew Bill of 1753, which allowed Jews to become naturalised by application to Parliament. It passed the Lords without much opposition, but on being brought down to the House of Commons, the Tories made protest against what they deemed an "abandonment of Christianity." The Whigs, however, persisted in carrying out at least one part of their general policy of religious toleration, and the bill was passed and received royal assent (26 Geo. II., cap. 26). The public reacted with an enormous outburst of antisemitism, and the Bill was repealed in the next sitting of Parliament, in 1754.)

During the Jacobite rising of 1745, the Jews had shown particular loyalty to the government. Their chief financier, Samson Gideon, had strengthened the stock market, and several of the younger members had volunteered in the corps raised to defend London. Possibly as a reward, Henry Pelham in 1753 brought in the Jew Bill of 1753, which allowed Jews to become naturalised by application to Parliament. It passed the Lords without much opposition, but on being brought down to the House of Commons, the Tories made a great outcry against this "abandonment of Christianity", as they called it. The Whigs, however, persisted in carrying out at least one part of their general policy of religious toleration, and the bill was passed and received the royal assent (26 Geo. II., cap. 26 ) .

The public reacted with an enormous outburst of antisemitism, and the Bill was repealed in the next sitting of Parliament, in 1754. Wikipedia)

In 1798 Nathan Mayer von Rothschild established a business in Manchester, and later N M Rothschild & Sons bank in London, having been sent to the UK by his father Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744-1812). The bank funded Wellington in the Napoleonic wars, financed the British government's 1875 purchase of Egypt's interest in the Suez Canal and funded Cecil Rhodes in the development of the British South Africa Company. Beyond banking and finance, members of the Rothschild family in UK became academics, scientists and horticulturalists with worldwide reputations.

EMANCIPATION AND PROSPERITY, 1800’s

With Catholic Emancipation in 1829, the hopes of the Jews rose high; and the first step toward a similar alleviation in their case was taken in 1830 when William Huskisson presented a petition signed by 2,000 merchants and others of Liverpool. This was immediately followed by a bill presented by Robert Grant on 15 April of that year which was destined to engage the Parliament in one form or another for the next thirty years.

In 1837, Queen Victoria knighted Moses Haim Montefiore; four years later, Isaac Lyon Goldsmid was made a baronet, the first Jew to receive a hereditary title. The first Jewish Lord Mayor of London, Sir David Salomons, was elected in 1855, followed by the 1858 emancipation of the Jews. On 26 July 1858, Lionel de Rothschild was finally allowed to sit in the British House of Commons when the law restricting the oath of office to Christians was changed; Benjamin Disraeli, a baptised Christian of Jewish parentage, was already an MP.

In 1868, Disraeli became Prime Minister having earlier been Chancellor of the Exchequer. In 1884 Nathan Mayer Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild became the first Jewish member of the British House of Lords; again Disraeli was already a member. (Though born a Jew, Disraeli's baptism as a child qualified him as eligible for political aspirations, presenting no restrictions regarding a mandated Christian oath of office.)

By 1880 the flourishing Jewish community in Birmingham was centred on its synagogue. The men organised collective action to defend the reputation and promote the interests of the community. Rituals regarding funerals and burials brought together the rich and the poor, the men and the women. Intermarriage outside the community was uncommon. However, the arrival of East European Jews after 1880 caused a split between the older, assimilated, middle-class Anglicized Jews and the generally much poorer new immigrants who spoke Yiddish.[15]

By 1882, 46,000 Jews lived in England and, by 1890, Jewish emancipation was complete in every walk of life. Since 1858, Parliament has never been without practicing Jewish members. Synagogues were built openly, occasionally across the country as large, architecturally elaborate classical, romanesque, Italianate or Victorian gothic buildings such as Singers Hill Synagogue, in Birmingham. However, not all grand examples survive: for instance Dalston Synagogue (counter-intuitively) in Newington Green, North London in the last-mentioned style was in poor repair so its congregation sold its land for building of an apartment block and relocated in 1970.


A SHORT HISTORY OF THE JEWS IN BRITAIN
Jews were banned from Britain for three centuries, until Oliver Cromwell allowed their return.


BACKGROUND  
                                                                                 

The first record of Jews living in England dates from Norman times. Just after 1066, William the Conqueror invited a group from Rouen to bring their commercial skills and incoming capital to England.  In the Middle Ages, lending money with interest - usury - was considered a sin and forbidden to Christians so medieval monarchs used Jews as moneylenders. The outsiders financed royal consumption, adventures and wars - and made themselves rich in the process. By 1168, the value of the personal property of the Jews (around £60,000) was regarded as a quarter of the entire wealth of England. And when Aaron of Lincoln died not long after - all property obtained by usury passing to the king on the death of the usurer - Henry II inherited the then massive sum of £15,000.

During Henry II's reign, Jews lived on good terms with their Christian neighbours. In the process helping to fund many abbeys and monasteries.  In return they were allowed to take refuge there as clerics and Popes routinely stirred up ill-feeling against the Jews as the "killers of Christ". Ill will was fed by the Crusades, in which the Jews were as much a target of the righteous sword-wielders as were the infidel Saracens.

One of the most popular myths was known by Jews as "the blood libel", which appears to have originated in England in an accusation against William of Norwich in 1144.  It suggested that he and other Jews killed a young Christian boy to use his blood in the ritual preparation of unleavened bread for the Passover ritual.  This claim spread from England to France and Spain and throughout Europe in medieval times and resurfaced in 20th century Nazi propaganda.  Barons, to whom Jews lent money, encouraged the mob responses to such claims, as Jewish homes were ransacked and records of their debts destroyed.

(Note:  To understand the background read ‘Mistress of the Art of Death’ by Ariana Franklin about the investigation in 1171 by a female doctor into the claimed murder of a boy by the Jews)

In 1218, in what became the precursor of worldwide anti-Jewish laws, Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, made Jews wear a badge - an oblong white patch of two finger-lengths by four - to identify them.

EXPULSION OF THE JEWS  

At the end of the 12th century, as part of an epidemic of religious fervour during preparations for Richard the Lionheart's Third Crusade against the Saracens, massacres of Jews were staged at Stamford fair, in Bury St Edmunds and, most notoriously, in York. In 1190 the city's Jews were given refuge in Clifford's Tower at York Castle and besieged by a mob demanding they convert to Christianity. Most of those inside committed suicide; those who surrendered were slaughtered. By 1290 the inevitable happened when Edward I - who had found an alternative source of finance in the Italian merchants known as the ‘pope's usurers’ - banished the Jews from England.

RETURN OF THE JEWS TO BRITAIN  

After the Expulsion it is impossible to say how many lived in England - though there were probably less than 100 at any one time - but without a synagogue or official recognition, they did not constitute a community.

There was no Inquisition in England and they became a useful political tool in  the dispute with Spain and Portugal.  For example Henry VIII imported Jewish rabbinical advisors to help find a Biblical way out of his marriage to Katherine of Aragon, the first of his six wives. He also welcomed Italian Jewish musicians to his court.

From the mid 16th century onwards, Jews entered England as Spanish and Portuguese merchants.  They lived a double life, practising Judaism in secret while in public attending Lutheran churches, somehow observing feasts, fast-days and some dietary laws.  The authorities turned a blind eye to their private religious activities

Toward the middle of the 17th century many Marrano merchants settled in London and formed a secret congregation, the head of whom was Antonio Fernandez Carvajal. They conducted a large business with the Levant, East and West Indies, Canary Islands, and Brazil, and above all with the Netherlands, Spain, and Portugal. They gave Cromwell and his secretary, Thurloe, important information as to the plans both of Charles Stuart in Holland and of the Spaniards in the New World (see L. Wolf, "Cromwell's Secret Intelligencers"). Outwardly they passed as Spaniards and Catholics; but held prayer-meetings at Cree Church Lane and became known to the government as Jews by faith.

Meanwhile public opinion in England had been prepared by the Puritan movement for the readmission of the Jews into England.  Petitions favoring readmission had been presented to the army in 1649 by two Baptists of Amsterdam, Johanna Cartwright and her son Ebenezer ("The Petition of the Jews for the Repealing of the Act of Parliament for Their Banishment out of England");  Many were moved in the same direction by mystical Messianic reasons.  Their views attracted the enthusiasm of Rabbi Menasseh Ben Israel, who in 1650 published his Hope of Israel, in which he advocated the return as a preliminary to the appearance of the Messiah in which he advocated the view that the Messiah could not appear till Jews existed in all the lands of the earth. According to Antonio de Montesinos, the Ten Tribes had been discovered in the North-American Indians, and England was the only country from which Jews were excluded. If England admitted them, the Messianic age might be expected.

In 1656 Rabbi Menasseh Ben Israel petitioned Oliver Cromwell, the Lord Protector after the defeat of Charles 1 in the Civil War, asking for his community to have the right to settle. That petition was a catalyst for change.

Cromwell held the Whitehall conference called to decide the issue.  The lawyers were happy while clerics and financiers were opposed. To stop them reaching the wrong decision Cromwell gave the rich Jews of Amsterdam permission to come to London and transfer their vital trade interests with the Spanish Main from Holland to England. While the result was inconclusive - the fact that the debate took place at all effected a change in the climate of tolerance.  Crucially, the conference accepted that the 1290 Edict of Expulsion applied only to Jews resident in England at that date; technically there was no barrier to resettlement.  For a Jew,  renewed hostilities with Spain also meant it was safer for a ‘hidden Jew’ to come out as a Jew than be taken as a Spaniard.

Under Cromwell, in 1656, it finally “became possible, for the first time for three and a half centuries, for Jews to live, trade and worship openly and, for the most part, untroubled in the City of London” (Schama, History of Britain II:234-35).

In 1655 Antonio Fernandez Carvajal (1590 - 1659) became the first naturalised British Jew when he and his two sons were granted ‘denizenship’ as English subjects (the patent being dated August 17 of that year).  When war with Spain broke out in the following year, his property in the Canaries was liable to seizure, as a British subject. Oliver Cromwell made arrangements for Carvajal's goods to be transported from the Canaries in an English ship which sailed under Dutch colors.

In December 1656 Antonio Fernandez Carvajal acquired land for a Jewish cemetery which was a public statement of existence.  In 1657 his hitherto private synagogue in Creechurch Lane was extended to accommodate more worshippers.  In 1659, his memorial service was attended by Samuel Pepys.

Ashkenazi Jews from Germany and Poland founded their first synagogue in 1692 in Broad Street, Mitre Square.  The magnificent Spanish and Portuguese Jews' synagogue in Bevis Marks, a road in the City of London, followed in 1701.

Subsequently, despite anti-Jewish agitation in the early years of George II’s reign, the King was not inclined “to reverse the arrangement that had become established under the Protectorate… [and] the legality of the practice of Judaism in England at last received indirect parliamentary recognition in the Act for Suppressing Blasphemy of 1698” (Encyclopedia Judaica VI:754). However, British Jews seeking naturalization and the right to participate in the political process—voting, holding elected office or a government job—continued to be excluded by requirements that they receive the Sacrament and swear an oath as Christians. This constraint lessened when Britain sought to encourage settlement in America by passing the Plantation Act in 1740, which removed the obstacle of a Sacramental Test for Jews who “inhabited or resided, or shall inhabit or reside for the space of seven years or more” in America.

Resettlement was not a smooth process. Just as the relationship between Jew and Gentile had blown hot and cold during the medieval settlement, so it was in the new dispensation. Various coalitions of aristocrats, Christian zealots and businessmen tried to re-expel the Jews. But the new Jewish merchants were too useful. They had brought in £1,500,000 in capital which had increased by the middle of the century to £5,000,000. Marlborough's wars against the Spanish were financed by them. During the Jacobite rising of 1745 they showed particular loyalty, offering finance and volunteering for the corps raised to defend London. Their investment provided one-twelfth of the nation's profits and one-twentieth of its foreign trade.  Their chief financier, Sampson Gideon, had strengthened the stock market, and several of the younger members had volunteered in the corps raised to defend London. Possibly as a reward, Henry Pelham in 1753 brought in its own Naturalization Act (known as “The Jew Bill”), legislating a process for British Jews that removed the Sacramental Test, but continued to stipulate a Christian oath that prevented Jews from voting or holding office. Popular opposition was immediate. It passed the Lords without much opposition, but on being brought down to the House of Commons, the Tories made a great outcry against this "abandonment of Christianity", as they called it. The Whigs, however, persisted in carrying out at least one part of their general policy of religious toleration, and the bill was passed and received the royal assent (26 Geo. II., cap. 26).  The 1753 Naturalization Act “was received by the nation.... ‘with horror and execration.’  And great outcry against this "abandonment of Christianity".  Those who had voted for it were denounced by the people… On the first day of the next session, a bill to repeal it was introduced and hurriedly passed in 1754 with the assent of both parties (Daly, Settlement of the Jews in America).

Click here for a database of the Jewish Community in mid-19th Century Britain

PARLIAMENT AND THE VOTE  

In 1874, Benjamin Disraeli became Prime Minister.  His parents had had him baptised a Christian when he was twelve and he entered Parliament in 1837.  During his life he was open about his Judaic inheritance, once needling a Commons opponent with the jibe that "when the ancestors of the right honourable gentleman were brutal savages in an unknown island, mine were priests in the temple of Solomon".  

In 1837, Queen Victoria knighted Moses Haim Montefiore. Four years later, Isaac Lyon Goldsmid became the first Jewish hereditary peer. The first Jewish Lord Mayor of London, Sir David Salomons, was elected in 1855, and the first Jewish MP, Lionel de Rothschild, took his seat three years later when the parliamentary oath was changed from an exclusively Christian one.

The Reform Act of 1867 enfranchised all male householders and gave the vote to Jews

By 1890, all restrictions for every position in the British Empire, except that of monarch, were removed to Jews, some 46,000 of whom now lived in England.

From the 1880s onwards many Jews immigrated when they fled from the pogroms in Poland and Russia. These Jews (Ashkenazim) had a distinct East European and Yiddish culture and soon outnumbered those settled in Briitain who had a Spanish and Portuguese culture.

By 1919, the Jewish population had increased to about 250,000 primarily in cities like London, Manchester and Liverpool.  They maintained a distinct culture building kosher businesses, welfare networks, Jewish schools and cultural bodies while embracing their English integration  Unlike their American counterparts, British Jews anglicised their names and their customs, starting youth movements like the Jewish Lads Brigade in emulation of the British Scouts.

Families like the one which founded the jewellers, H Samuel, in Liverpool attempted to overturn prejudice and seek public office. In 1806 the city's Seel Street synagogue became the first in England to deliver sermons in English. In Manchester groups of Jewish intelligentsia were shaping new expressions of Judaism, including the Reform Movement, the political notion of Zionism and creating tools for activism which made the Jewish community strong in the traditions of British socialism and trade unionism. This in part explains why anti-semitism, which in most of Europe is most prevalent among the working classes, in Britain met stout opposition from many ordinary people, as events such as the Battle of Cable Street showed. Indeed anti-semitism has been more common among the British upper, rather than the lower, classes - a phenomenon which Ashley Perry puts down to aristocratic resentment.

‘The British consider themselves the height of civilization, the founder of democracy and the force that brought culture to much of the world," he says. But the Jews remind them that "there is one people that has lived with the British for many years which reminds them that their 'civilisation' is relatively new’.

SIR OSWALD MOSELEY
For detail go to  Life and Times of Sir Oswald Mosley & the British Union of Fascists

Between 1918 and 1931 Mosley was a Tory, then an Independent Tory, and then a member of the Labour Party. He became the youngest MP in the House of Commons at the 1918 General Election.  In 1930 and founded the New Party.  The crushing defeat of the New Party in the 1931 general election led to it being disbanded and the creation of the British Union of Fascists (BUF).  By 1936, after making little political headway, he saw the opportunity to exploit anti-Semitism for political gain. Violent clashes in the East End of London resulted in the “Battle of Cable Street” in October 1936, when the BUF and anti-fascist groups fought each other.  A friend of Hiler, he party went into decline. He died in 1980.

SEE VIDEOS ABOVE

JEWISH REFUGEES FROM THE NAZIS    

Britain allowed about 40,000 Jews from Austria and Germany to settle in Britain along with 50,000 Jews from Italy, Poland, and elsewhere in Eastern Europe and 10,000 Kindertransport children rescued on the eve of war.

Today, when many fear that anti-semitism is on the rise again, they acknowledge that, in the judgement of the Jewish peer Lord Janner, "in the UK it's not as serious as it is in France, Denmark, the Netherlands or Belgium." Instead Lord Janner perceives a different threat. Today there are about 350,000 Jews in the UK - around two-thirds in London, with around 40,000 in Manchester and significant communities in Leeds, Glasgow, Brighton, Liverpool, Birmingham, Bournemouth, Gateshead and Southend. That spreads the community pretty thin.

For a detailed review got to We've been here before  The Guardian 8 June 2002

TODAY
World Jewish Congress

DEMOGRAPHY

According to the 2011 census, the Jewish community in the United Kingdom numbered 269,568 people out of 56,075,912 overall. More specifically, the details for the countries that make up the United Kingdom are as follows: England and Wales – 163,346, Scotland – 5,887, and Northern Ireland – 335. This is in comparison to Christians constituting 59.3% of the population and Muslims, the second largest religious group in the UK, making up 4.8% of it. Jews constitute 0.48% of the population respectively.

The majority of Jews are concentrated in some of the UK’s major cities, namely London, Manchester, Leeds, and Glasgow. Smaller communities also exist throughout the country.

COMMUNITY LIFE

The community is represented by the Board of Deputies of British Jews, a democratically elected, cross-communal Jewish representative body, with close to 300 synagogues and Jewish organizations represented. Its presidency is the highest elected office of lay leadership in the Jewish community and the organization’s work – which includes representing the community’s positions and concerns to government and parliament, the media, other groups in society, and London’s diplomatic community, is carried out by a professional team of staff based in London. Consequently, it is regarded by the government as the legitimate voice of the Jewish people in the UK.

JW3 - the Jewish Community Centre London

On a local level, there are numerous other Jewish communal representative organizations in the UK, such as, the Scottish Council of Jewish Communities (SCoJeC), the main representative body of the Jewish communities of Scotland. Student interests are represented by the Union of Jewish Students of the United Kingdom and Ireland (UJS), a cross-communal organization. In addition, the Community Security Trust (CST), works to protect British Jews and UK Jewish institutions from anti-Semitism and related threats.

The community’s vibrancy and diversity is reflected in other ways as well, including the Limmud conference, a UK-based yearly gathering of international Jewish thinkers, speakers, musicians, artists, and theologians that has become a model for worldwide applications. JW3 – London’s impressive Jewish community center – stands as a fixture for Jewish life and culture in both London and the UK in general. World Jewish Relief (WJR), an agency focused on humanitarian aid for impoverished Jews – and whose patron is Prince Charles – is a notable contribution to aid efforts by the community.

RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL LIFE

In the religious field, twenty six percent of UK Jews define themselves as “traditional,” twenty four percent as “cultural or secular,” eighteen percent as “progressive,” 12 percent as “Orthodox” and four percent as “ultra-Orthodox,” or “Haredi.” Just over half of Jews in the UK are affiliated to synagogues which belong to one of the main streams of Judaism. The United Synagogue (Modern Orthodox), the Movement for Reform Judaism, Liberal Judaism, Sephardi S&P, Masorti Judaism, and the Federation of Synagogues are the main synagogue movements.

There are several rabbinical institutions serving the various streams. The Chief Rabbi of the United Kingdom effectively represents most Orthodox Jewish communities and is named by the United Synagogue. The current Chief Rabbi is Ephraim Mirvis, while the Senior Rabbi to Reform Judaism is Laura Janner-Klausner.

Kosher food is available in London, and other large cities, through a myriad of stores, restaurants, butcheries, etc. Smaller communities may have less options than the more major cities, but kosher food can be found in most parts of the country and there are several online delivery options.

JEWISH EDUCATION

According to research conducted by the International Journal of Jewish Education Research in 2010, around 60% of Jewish pupils in the UK attend Jewish day schools, with the majority doing so in London. As a result, the number of Jewish day schools has greatly expanded over the past couple decades, with more being planned. Moreover, this increase has resulted in a decline in Jewish pupils’ participation in supplementary education, as more Jewish students are opting for a completely-Jewish framed education, as opposed to the weekly sessions that secondary schools – mainly synagogue-run – can offer. Funding for these institutions – Jewish day schools in particular – occurs on both a state and community level, with state-aid accounting for a good portion of these schools’ budget, and community efforts – namely the Jewish Educational Development Trust – also playing a large role in the monetary elements of these institutions.

In terms of Jewish religious tertiary education, Jews’ College is the traditional Orthodox community’s rabbinical studies center while Leo Baeck College trains progressive rabbis. A number of yeshivot are operated by the Orthodox communities. There are also a number of adult learning centers, including the London School of Jewish Studies (LSJS) and the Lyons Learning Project.

YOUTH

Youth organizations are prevalent throughout UK Jewish communities in promoting Jewish values and contributing to the wider community. Ezra London, founded in 1919, is the oldest Jewish youth movement in the UK and offers recreational and educational activities within a Jewish structure. The Federation of Zionist Youth (FZY), founded in 1935, focuses on developing a strong Jewish and Zionist identity through a framework of camps, seminars, and various events. The United Jewish Israel Appeal (UJIA) works to support projects in Israel and foster a connection to Israel within the Jewish youth in the UK. BBYO UK & Ireland is part of the wider BBYO organization that spans multiple continents and aims to emphasize Jewish values and empower Jewish youths through leadership initiatives, camps, trips, and other activities. Bnei Akiva UK focuses on instilling the importance of the Torah and Israel, especially in relation to Aliyahs, through various Jewish-structured events and activities. The Union of Jewish Students is a cross-communal, peer-led organization that defends the interests of Jewish students studying in the UK and Ireland. Betar UK, part of the worldwide Betar movement, offers a recreational atmosphere that emphasizes Jewish values and the importance of Zionism. Hashomer Hatzair UK focuses on promoting coexistence among different cultures and religion through youth and community engagements.

JEWISH MEDIA

The Jewish media in the UK reflects the diversity of the community, with The Jewish Chronicle, the oldest Jewish periodical in the world (founded 1841), The Jewish News, and The Jewish Telegraph dominating the center-ground, while Hamodia and The Jewish Tribune cater to more Orthodox audiences. Jewish Renaissance and the Jewish Quarterly offer up cultural fare, while a number of local radio stations broadcast weekly programs of Jewish interest.  

INFORMATION FOR VISITORS

There are numerous notable Jewish sites throughout the United Kingdom, including JW3 (the Jewish Community Centre London), the Jewish Museum of London, the Manchester Jewish Museum, and synagogues of all streams. Additionally, the British Library and British Museum in London contain major collections of Jewish artifacts and manuscripts.

ISRAEL

Britain maintains full diplomatic relations with Israel. These strong diplomatic ties are manifest in the rapidly increasing volume of trade between the two countries during the last couple of years.

Israeli Embassy

2 Palace Green

London, W8 4QB

Telephone: 020 7957 9500

Fax: 0207 957 9555

LINKS      

Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 316. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.

England Related Articles in the Jewish Encyclopedia

David S. Katz, Philo-Semitism and the Readmission of the Jews to England, 1603-1655 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982)

David S. Katz, The Jews in the History of England, 1485-1850 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994)

‘The Middle Period’ For details of Jews between 1290 - 1609

Shakespeare and the Jews, James Shapiro, Columbia University Press 1996

The Club, The Jews of Modern Britain, Stephen Brook, Constable and Constable 1989

The Sephardim of England, Albert M Hyamson, Methuen 1951

In fiction
"The Queen's Fool", by Philippa Gregory, is told from the point of view of a (fictional) Marrano girl living in England at the time of Queen Mary (BRILLIANT)

‘Mistress of the Art of Death’ by Ariana Franklin about the investigation in 1171 by a female doctor into the claimed murder of a boy by Jews

Resettlement of the Jews in England    Wikipedia

Sephardic Jews in 17th Century London and the Readmission by David J Ferdinando

A Chronology of the Jews in Britain

The History of the Medieval Jews of England

Jewish Museum London

Chaucer and the Jewish Ritual Murder Narratives by David Zhang

Menasseh ben Israel's Mission to Oliver Cromwell,  Lionel Abrahams,
The Jewish Quarterly Review, 1901


BRITISH JEWS
EXPULSION, READMISSION AND AFTER

SUMMARY

The Jews were expelled in 1290.  Oliver Cromwell allowed them to return in 1656.
In 2006, a ceremony in London celebrated the 350th anniversary of that decision.

__________________________________


A popular myth known by Jews as ‘the blood libel’ or ‘ritual murder’ may have originated in England with the accusation against William of Norwich in 1144.  It was claimed that he and other Jews killed a Christian boy to use his blood in the ritual preparation of unleavened bread for the Passover ritual.  This claim spread from England to Europe and was then used in  20th century Nazi propaganda.  Barons, to whom Jews lent money, encouraged mob responses to such claims as Jewish homes were then ransacked and debt records destroyed.  

The Jews were expelled from England in 1290.

From the mid 16th century, Jews came to England as Spanish and Portuguese merchants. They lived a double life (called Marrano’s), practising Judaism in secret while in public attending Lutheran churches, somehow observing feasts, fast-days and some dietary laws.  The authorities turned a blind eye to their private religious activities

Toward the middle of the 17th century Marrano merchants settled in London and formed a secret congregation that passed information about the Spaniards to the authorities.   For Messianic reasons petitions favoring readmission had been presented to the army in 1649. Their views attracted the attention of Rabbi Menasseh Ben Israel, who In 1656 petitioned Oliver Cromwell, the Lord Protector after the defeat of Charles 1 in the Civil War, asking for his community to have the right to settle. That petition was a catalyst for change.  

In 1655 Antonio Fernandez Carvajal (1590 - 1659) became the first naturalised British Jew when he and his two sons were granted ‘denizenship’ (an inhabitant of a place) as English subjects (the patent was dated August 17).  In December 1656 he acquired land for a Jewish cemetery which was a public statement of Jewish existence.  In 1659, his memorial service was attended by Samuel Pepys.

Ashkenazi Jews from Germany and Poland founded their first synagogue in 1692 in Broad Street, Mitre Square.London.  The magnificent Spanish and Portuguese Jews' synagogue in Bevis Marks, in the City of London, followed in 1701.  The legality of the practice of Judaism in England received indirect parliamentary recognition through the 1698 Act Suppressing Blasphemy.

In 1837, Queen Victoria knighted Moses Haim Montefiore. Four years later, Isaac Lyon Goldsmid became the first Jewish hereditary peer. The first Jewish Lord Mayor of London, Sir David Salomons, was elected in 1855, and the first Jewish MP, Lionel de Rothschild took his seat three years later when the parliamentary oath was changed from being a Christian one.

The Reform Act of 1867 enfranchised all male householders and gave the vote to Jews

in 1874, Benjamin Disraeli became Prime Minister.  His parents had had him baptised a Christian when he was twelve.  He entered Parliament in 1837.

By 1890 Jews had had all restrictions to every position in the British Empire, except that of monarch, removed. 46,000 Jews now lived in England.

From the 1880’s many Jews immigrated as they were fleeing from pogroms in Poland and Russia. These Jews (ashkenazim) had a distinct East European and Yiddish culture and soon outnumbered those with a Spanish and Portuguese culture (sephardim).

The 1930’s saw the creation of the British Fascist Party under Sir Oswald Moseley which went into decline after the Battle of Cable Street in 1936.

Today there is a vibrant community with congregations ranging from Ultra Orthdox to Liberal

THE

INCREDIBLE

STORY OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE


FROM EXPULSION (1290) TO READMISSION (1656)

1290-1656

 The Middle Period



The period between the expulsion of the Jews in 1290 and their readmission in 1656 is generally called ‘The Middle Period’. Although there was no Jewish community during this period, Jews visited Britain from time to time for various reasons and some Marranos established themselves in Britain for periods of time.

Further reading: Wolf (1887); Roth (1959)

1310

Attempt at

Revocation of

the Edict of

Expulsion

A delegation of six Jews came to London to try to obtain a revocation of the expulsion. They were not successful, although according to Joseph Hacohen’s Emek Habacha they were not expelled until 1358.

1410

Jewish doctor

Attends Henry IV

Elias Sabot from Bologna was summoned to attend Henry IV and given permission to reside and practise medicine anywhere in England.

1487

Court of the

Star Chamber

established

It is generally believed that the Court of the Star Chamber was named for the star pattern on the ceiling of the room at the Palace of Westminster where its

meetings were held. However, this might not be correct.  Before the expulsion of the Jews in 1290 a copy of their legal documents known as shtarot or starrs from the Hebrew word shetar (a covenant) had to be deposited in chests. These chests were held in various places, but the main one was a room in the Palace of Westminster near the exchequer. This room became known as the star-chamber. When the Jews were expelled this room began to be used by the King’s Council. In time the

fact that its name derived from the Jewish starrs was forgotten and possibly because of the name the ceiling

was painted with stars not the other way round. The room has now been converted into the lottery office.

August 18 1494

Evidence of Jews (Marranos)

in Tudor England

In a letter from Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain to Henry VII, they requested that some Jews in London be forced to return some money they had impounded.

No evidence exists that Henry took any action regarding the money or the Jews. The letter was written two years after the expulsion of Jews from Spain in 1492

and indicates that some Jews had fled to England.

Further reading: Katz (1996)

January 25 1531

Jewish help with Henry VIII’s divorce from Catherine

of Aragon

King Henry decided that one of the major grounds for his divorce was the prohibition in Leviticus against‘taking thy brother’s wife’ and that the levirate marriage requirement in Deuteronomy 10 did not apply.  Some historians consider that to assist in the researches a complete edition of the Talmud was imported, others consider that although a Talmud was imported at that time it was not imported by Henry nor to assist in the arguments for his divorce. He also sought and obtained help from some Jewish

experts in Italy. At the beginning of 1531 Marco Raphael, a Jew who had converted to Christianity, arrived in London to advise Henry VIII on this. In the

end his help was not necessary as it was overtaken by events – Archbishop Cranmer declaring the marriage to Catherine void and Henry marrying Anne Boleyn,

who was pregnant with the future Queen Elizabeth I.

Further reading: Katz (1996), Chapter 1.

C 1531

Renewal of Jewish residence in

England?

Samuel Usque stated in his book Consolation for the Tribulations of Israel published in 1553 that some Jews

who left Portugal after 1531 went to England where they were ‘despised and abused’.

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VIDEOS

TIMELINE

From Expulsion
to
Readmission

Edward I Expells the Jews from England (1290)

Blood libel

Resettlement period, 1655–1800s

A short history of the Jews in Britain

Sir Oswald Moseley

Jewish
Refugees
from the Nazis

Today

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