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BRITAIN,
JEWISH HISTORY TIMELINE
EXPULSION, READMISSION AND AFTER

Jewish Historical Society of England


Date

 Event

Before 1066

 No real evidence of presence of Jews in Britain

Late 11th Century

William the Conqueror brought Jews from Rouen to London

1093c.

 Important disputation between Gilbert Crispin (Abbott of Westminster) and a Jew

12th Century

First Charter of Protection to Jews in England

Wednesday March 01 1144

William of Norwich, the first Ritual Murder charge against Jews in the medieval period

1158

Ibn Ezra visits London

March 1167 or 116

Harold of Gloucester ritual murder charge.

1177

Jews of England had had to use the burial ground in London, but in 1177 were permitted to purchase burial grounds outside any city where they lived

1181

Jews forbidden to hold Arms

 1183c

First Arch Presbyter of the Jews appointed

1186

 Death of Aaron of Lincoln who was considered one of the wealthiest men in England

Friday January 31 1253

Restrictive measures against Jews

August 1255

Hugh of Lincoln ritual murder charge

3 SaS16/17 March, 1190

Massacre in York

Late 1194

First steps towards establishment of the Exchequer of the Jews

Tuesday April 10 1201

King John confirms Charter of the Jews. It cost them 4,000 marks

Monday November 01 1210

Unprecedented Tallage on Jews

Monday June 15 1215

 Magna Carta. Two clauses concern debts due to Jews

Friday March 30 1218

 Jewish badge introduced, only strictly enforced after 1253

1231

Jews expelled from Leicester. This proved to be the start of a host of expulsions from various cities and towns

Friday January 16 1232

 Domus Conversorum established in London

Sunday August 01 1255

 Hugh of Lincoln ritual murder charge

Tuesday April 01 1264

Attack on the Jewry in London and elsewhere

Sunday November 24 1275

 Statute of the Jewry

1279

Jews ordered to attend sermons delivered by Dominican Friars

Tuesday July 18 1290

 Edict expelling Jews

1290 -1656

The period between the expulsion of the Jews in 1290 and their readmission in 1656 is generally called ‘The Middle Period’. Although there was no Jewish community during this period, Jews visited Britain from time to time for various reasons and some Marranos established themselves in Britain for periods of time

Sunday October 31 1655

Humble address from Menasseh ben Israel to Oliver Cromwell. A fortnight later on 13 November he submitted a petition for the readmission of Jews to England

Wednesday December 01 1655

 Whitehall Conference to discuss the petition. Dissolved by Cromwell before it reached a decision

1656

Although no formal agreement on readmission, Jewish residents of London began living openly as Jews

Friday December 01 1656

First Synagogue established after Readmission

Thursday February 01 1657

First Cemetery acquired in Mile End

Sunday October 14 1663

 Samuel Pepys visits the Synagogue on Simchat Torah

1664

 Bylaws (Ascamot) of new community agreed

22 August, 1664

 Jews granted Royal protection

Saturday January 01 1667

Jews allowed to swear in Court on the Old Testament

Thursday February 01 1674

Jews indicted for holding a service, but the King stopped the proceedings against them

1671

 Start of practice of presenting each Lord Mayor with a gift

1677

 Court venue changed to avoid a Jew having to give evidence on a Saturday


1692c

Establishment of first Ashkenazi Synagogue

Saturday February 02 1697

 Siite acquired for first Ashkenazi cemetery

1697

Jews admitted as brokers on the Royal Exchange

Tuesday September 20 1701

 Bevis Marks Synagogue inaugurated

1702

 Great Synagogue founded

Saturday June 24 1702

 Act to oblige Jews to maintain and provide for their Protestant children

Friday March 20 1705

 Hambro Synagogue founded

Late 1714

 Publication of John Toland’s Reasons for Naturalising the Jews in Great Britain and Ireland, on the same foot with All Other Nations

1732

Talmud Torah attached to the Great established, which became the Jews’ Free School (JFS) in 1817

Wednesday October 18 1747

 Establishment of the Sephardi Jews’ Hospital (Beth Holim)

1753

 Enactment and repeal of the ‘Jew Bill’

Sunday December 14 1760

 Foundation of Board of Deputies

May 1761

The New Synagogue founded

1761

Beginnings of Western Synagogue

 

17 December, 1776

Official fast to wish success against the rebels in America


17 April, 1782

Death of the Baal Shem of London

Late 1787

Conversion of Lord George Gordon

Wednesday October 19 1803

 Official fast for success in the war against France

Monday April 16 1804

 Establishment of The London Board for Shechita

Friday April 14 1809

Three Royal Dukes visit the Great Synagogue

1817

Establishment of Jews’ Free School (JFS)

1819

Jewish Blind Society founded

1826

 University College London founded, the first university in England to admit students regardless of race, class or religion

1836

Marriage Registration Act recognising Board of Deputies as a competent authority

1840

Successful mission by Moses Montefiore to secure release of Jews in Damascus accused of a blood libel

Wednesday April 15 1840

 Religious split in London Community

  Late 1841

 Voice of Jacob and Jewish Chronicle founded

Monday January 17 1842

 West London Synagogue of British Jews opened

Thursday July 31 1845

Act for the relief of Persons of the Jewish Religion elected to Municipal Offices

Tuesday August 18 1846

 Religious Disabilities Act. The Jewish religion was no longer connived at, but was placed under the protection of the law

Thursday July 01 1847

 Lionel Rothschild elected an MP, but unable to take seat because oath included the words ‘on the true faith of a Christian’

1855

 Jews College founded

Friday July 23 1858

 Oaths and Jewish Relief Acts

Monday July 26 1858

 First Jew (Lionel Rothschild) takes seat in House of Commons

1859

Unsuccessful mission by Moses Montefiore to Rome to secure release of Edgardo Mortara

1859

Foundation of the Board of Guardians (subsequently Jewish Care)

Sunday June 28 1868

Disraeli appointed Prime Minister

Thursday July 14 1870

Establishment of United Synagogue

1871

Formation of Anglo-Jewish Association

1881

 Start of mass immigration

1885

Establishment of the ‘Jewish Ladies’ Society for Preventative and Rescue Work’

28 July, 1885

Death of Sir Moses Montefiore

April, 1887

The Anglo-Jewish Historical Exhibition

6 November, 1887

Formation of Federation of Synagogues


September, 1889

Jewish Tailors Strike

10 December, 1890

Public meeting protesting against condition of Russian Jews

10 December, 1890

Public meeting protesting against condition of Russian Jews

1891

Shechitah dispute and formation of the Machzike Hadath

November, 1891

Foundation of ‘The Maccabeans’

1892

Schism at Hampstead Synagogue

1893

Foundation of Jewish Historical Society of England

1895

 Foundation of the Jewish Lads’ Brigade

17 January, 1896

First version of Herzl’s The Jewish State published in Jewish Chronicle

1896

Foundation of Brady Street Boys’ Club

1899

English Zionist Federation founded


1902

Anti-Jewish disturbances in South Wales


18 October, 1902

 Inaugural service of the Jewish Religious Union which led to the formation of the Liberal Jewish Movement


23 April, 1903

The Uganda Project


August, 1903

Report of the Royal Commission on Aliens leading to the 1905 Aliens Act

12 January, 1904

The Limerick ‘Pogrom’

19 August, 1911

 Anti-Jewish riots in Tredegar

1912

The Marconi Scandal

1913

The Indian Silver Affair


1914

Foundation of Oxford and St George’s Girls’ Club

March, 1915

Formation of the Zion Mule Corps.


24 May, 1917

Anti-Zionist manifesto by the Conjoint published in the Times

July, 1917

Formation of a Jewish Battalion of the Royal Fusiliers

2 November, 1917

The Balfour Declaration

1919

Jewish Memorial Council founded

13 July, 1919

London Jewish Hospital opens for out-patients


January, 1920

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion first published in Britain


25 April, 1920

Palestine Mandate assigned to Britain


Wednesday October 01 1930

The ‘Passfieldâ’ White Paper


April, 1933

Community Undertaking regarding Jewish Refugees from Germany

July, 1935

 Formation of Defence Committee by Board of Deputies


4 October, 1936

Formation of Jewish People’s Council and ‘The Battle of Cable Street’

7 July, 1937

‘Peel Report’ published


May, 1939

White Paper on Palestine

11 May, 1941

The Great Synagogue, Dukes Place, destroyed in an air raid


17 December, 1942

 Confirmation of extermination of Jews by Nazis announced to House of Commons

March, 1945

Last German V2 rocket on London kills 130 persons, nearly all Jewish

March, 1946

Formation of the ’43 Group’

22 July, 1946

 Bombing of King David Hotel, Jerusalem


8 May, 1948

Establishment of the State of Israel

1954

Establishment of Jewish Book Week

October, 1956

The Suez Affair

1961

The ‘Jacobs’ Affair

10 May, 1991

War Crimes Act

1992

Jewish Genealogical Society of Great Britain founded

1996

Bloom’s in Whitechapel Road closes

6 May, 2002

Solidarity Rally in Trafalgar Square in support of peace in Israel

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