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JEWS - PORTUGAL -TERMINOLOGY

__________________________________

TERMINOLOGY  (see also  GLOSSARY)
From  ‘The Nutshell History of the Marranos of Portugal’ by Manuel Azevedo   

–--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------New Christian (Catalan: cristiá nou; Spanish: cristiano nuevo; Galician: cristián novo; Portuguese: cristão-novo) was a term used to refer to Iberian Jews and Muslims who converted to Roman Catholicism, and their known baptized descendants. The term was introduced by the Old Christians of Iberia who wanted to distinguish themselves from the conversos (converts). Marranos was once a pejorative term applied to Jews who were forcibly baptized in Spain in 1391 and in Portugal in 1497. Its acceptance in Portugal, was  its growing meaning as a badge of identity and resistance to the demonic unHoly Office of the Inquisition (which still exists!) It origin is to the Aramaic-Hebrew Mar Anus (‘forced one’)  of its association with the forced baptism of 1497 and the Inquisition.  Some think it is also linked to the Spanish ‘swine’ though this translation is no longer used.  Anussim. (‘forced one’) has the same meaning as Marrano and is preferred by some as it is a legal category of Jews in halakha (Jewish law) who were forced to abandon Judaism against their will, typically while forcibly converted to another religion and has no perjorative origin.  Christianity used the terms Converso (convert) and New Christian to distinguish them from the ‘Old Christian’.

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