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4000 YEARS OF
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OVERVIEW

PAPAL APOLOGY


WHY IT IS IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND THE INQUISITION

WHAT IS THE INQUISITION?

SHADOW OF THE INQUISITION

The Spanish and Portuguese Empires on the American Continent

Spanish and Portuguese Immigration Policy - New Christians

Clandestine Jewish Communal Life
Marrano Camouflage Methods

Where the Term ‘Sephardim’
Comes From

Festivals and Customs in the Shadow of the Inquisition

Disintegration of Jewish Communities

 THE MEDIEVAL, SPANISH, PORTUGUESE AND ROMAN INQUISITIONS

The Inquisitions Lasted for Almpst 600 Years

The Medieval, Spanish, Portuguese, Goa
 and Roman  Inquisition’s

An Economic Analysis of the Spanish Inquisition’s Motivations and Consequences

 inquisitions
in the Americas

CHARGES
  BROUGHT BY THE
 INQUISITION

 

HOW  WAS THE INQUISITION   ORGANISED?

Going to a New Community

Accusation

Detention

The Trial

ENFORCOMG A SENTENCE

Proclamations

Procession and Ceremony

Punishments

Executuion of Sentence

Where Held

INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE AND PROCEDURE

AUTOS DE LA FE (Spanish),
AUTO DA FE (Portuguese)


FINANCING THE INQUISITION

EDGARDO MORTARO,
THE LAST ARREST
 OF THE
 INQUISITION


THE INQUISITION AND THE
ECONOMIC LIFE
OF EUROPE


 WHY  DID  THE

INQUISITION
DECLINE?


JUSTIFICATION OF THE INQUISITION BY THE
CATHOLIC CHURCH


THE INQUISITION ARCHIVES

JEWISH FAITH AND TRADITION AFTER THE INQUISITION

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Edgardo Mortaro, The Last Arrest of the Inquisition  
(From the Prologue  to ‘The Kidnapping of Edgardo Mortaro’ by David Kertzer)

_________________________________________________________________


In 1858. In Rome, Pope Pius IX sat on St. Peter’s throne as French troops patrolled the Eternal City. Two of the three most powerful men in Bologna were cardinals: the Archbishop, the city’s spiritual leader, and the Cardinal Legate, representing the papal government, the civil ruler. The third was a military man, an Austrian general, whose troops (along with the French forces in Rome) ensured that the tottering Papal government did not fall.

Across the street from the general’s headquarters was the  Dominican church of San Domenico where the Inquisitor lived.  He was charged by the Congregation of the Holy Office in Rome with combating heresy and defending the faith. Among his tasks was ensuring that restrictions imposed on the Jews were obeyed.

For two centuries, Bologna’s inquisitors had had little reason to worry about the Jews, for in 1593 the Pope had expelled all nine hundred of them from the city and its surrounding territories. In the wake of the French occu­pation of the 1790’s a few adventurous Jews returned. Once the Papal States were restored, their status again became tenuous and their right to live in the city less than clear. Yet, by 1858 close to two hundred lived m Bologna, merchants for the most part, carving out a comfortable niche for their families. Given the Church authorities’ mixed feelings about their presence m the formerly forbidden city, the Jews had no desire to call attention to themselves, and so had neither synagogue nor rabbi.

In 1858 police, acting on the orders of the Inquisitor, went to the home of a Jewish merchant, Momolo Mortara, to arrest their six year old son.  They sent him to a special monastery in Rome where Jews were converted into good Catholics.  His parents learned that the family's Catholic servant, thinking he might die had claimed to have secretly baptized him as she feared that otherwise he would go to hell. Edgardo recovered, but the story had reached the Bologna Inquisitor, Their justification was that no Christian child could be raised by Jewish parents. It became an international cause célèbre. Refusing to return the child to his family, Pope Pius IX began to regard the boy as his own child. When eighteen he decided to become a priest.  He died in a Belgian abbey in 1940 aged eighty eight.

His fate came to symbolize the entire revolutionary campaign of Mazzini and Garibaldi to end the dominance of the Catholic Church and establish a modern, secular Italian state.   Had this not happened it is possible that the Pope would have become the first President of Italy and Catholicism more dominant.

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