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JEWISH EXILES
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JewishWikipedia.info

THE

INCREDIBLE

STORY OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE



EMPIRES THAT RULED IN ISRAEL



EMPIRES THAT RULED IN ISRAEL
From Science.co.il













587 BCE BABYLONIAN Destruction of the first Temple.

538-333 BCE PERSIAN Return of the exiled Jews from Babylon and construction of the second Temple (520-515 BCE).

333-63 BCE HELLENISTIC Conquest of the region by the army of Alexander the Great (333 BCE). The Greeks generally allowed the Jews to run their state. But, during the rule of the king Antiochus IV, the Temple was desecrated. This brought about the revolt of the Maccabees, who established an independent rule. The related events are celebrated during the Hanukah holiday.

63 BCE-313 CE ROMAN The Roman army led by Titus conquered Jerusalem and destroyed the Second Temple at 70 CE. Jewish people were then exiled and dispersed to the Diaspora. In 132, Bar Kokhba organized a revolt against Roman rule, but was killed in a battle in Bethar in Judean Hills. Subsequently the Romans decimated the Jewish community, renamed Jerusalem as Aelia Capitolina and Judea as Palaestina to obliterate Jewish identification with the Land of Israel (the word Palestine, and the Arabic word Filastin originate from this Latin name). (Note: They were copying the procedure they used to obliterate Carthage from the map)

The remaining Jewish community moved to northern towns in the Galilee. Around 200 CE the Sanhedrin was moved to Tsippori (Zippori, Sepphoris). The Head of Sanhedrin, Rabbi Yehuda HaNassi (Judah the Prince), compiled the Jewish oral law, Mishna.

313-636 BYZANTINE The juridical standing of the Jews of the Byzantine Empire was unique during the entire history of the Empire; they did not belong to the Christian Eastern Orthodox faith, which was the state religion, nor were they usually grouped with heretics and pagans but were placed in a legal position between the two worlds. The place varied with time, and depended largely on three factors: the theological desire of the state to maintain the Jews as a living testament to the victory of Christianity, the desire of the state to strengthen its control, and the ability of centralized rule from Constantinople to enforce its legislation.

636-1099 ARAB Dome of the Rock was built by Caliph Abd el-Malik on the grounds of the destroyed Jewish Temple.

1099-1291 CRUSADERS The crusaders came from Europe to capture the Holy Land following an appeal by Pope Urban II, and massacred the non-Christian population. Later Jewish community in Jerusalem expanded by immigration of Jews from Europe.

1291-1516 MAMLUKS (lit slaves) a military class who ruled Egypt from 1250 to 1517 and Syria (including Palestine) from 1260 to 1516. Under the Mamluk sultans local Jews often suffered though sometimes the Sultan and his representative were restraining influences. 1516-1918 OTTOMAN During the reign of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566) the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem were rebuilt. Population of the Jewish community in Jerusalem increased.

1917-1948 BRITISH Great Britain recognized the rights of the Jewish people to establish a "national home in Palestine". Yet they greatly curtailed entry of Jewish refugees into Israel even after World War II. They split their Palestine mandate into an Arab state which has become the modern day Jordan, and Israel.


(See also History of the Jews and Judaism in the Land of Israel )

HISTORY OF THE JEWS -
SUMMARY FROM 750 BC TO
ISRAEL-PALESTINE CONFLICT


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JEWISH EXILES FROM ARAB COUNTRIES and PALESTINIAN REFUGEES